Welfare Schemes , Laws and Institutions for Disabled Persons

Welfare Schemes , Laws and Institutions for Disabled Persons

This article deals with ‘Welfare Schemes , Laws and Institutions for Disabled Persons .’ This is part of our series on ‘Governance’ which is important pillar of GS-2 syllabus . For more articles , you can click here

Introduction

  • Einstein had learning impairment yet he developed Theory of Relativity
  • Thomas Alva Edison had hearing impairment but his inventions created the modern world
  • Louis Braille was visually impaired but his invention enabled blind people worldover to read and write

These people told the world that it is not the disability but one’s ability that counts

  • Persons with Disability Act defines Disability under 21 categories like blindness, low vision, leprosy cured, hearing impairment, loco motor disability, mental retardation and mental illness.
  • 2011 Census says 2.21% of Indian population is disabled (which is underestimation).

Issues with Disables

  • Disability is not  measured properly in India. Census depends on self-reporting of disability – many don’t report owing to social stigma
  • India looks at disability from medical or pathological angle only. Most developed countries look from social angle 
  • Lack of Institutional and Infrastructural Support for the disabled in India.
    • Lack of schools for disabled
    • Physical infrastructure is not disabled friendly etc
  • Under new  GST regime , almost all disability  aids and appliances to be taxed at rate of  5% or 12% 

Rights of Person with Disability Act , 2016

  • Bill is brought to fulfill obligations under the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD)  ratified by India in 2007.
  • Passed in 2017

Provisions

  • Types of disabilities have been increased from existing 7 to 21 including Acid Attack Victims, Dwarfism, etc
  • Reservation in government jobs=>  increased from 3% to 4%
  • Every disabled child in age group 6 and 18 years to have right to free education.
  • Ensure accessibility in public buildings (both Government and private) 
  • Special Courts for handling cases concerning violation of rights of PwDs.

Benefits

  • Right based approach: Will help to move the discourse away from charity 
  • Wider coverage: The list of disabilities is expanded from 7 to 21 
  • Provides reservation and hence will help in Socio-Economic development

Criticism

  • Reservation : Reservation was 5% in 2014 proposed bill and reduced to 4% in this
  • No provision regarding insurance companies that they cant charge higher premiums from Disabled persons

Marrakesh Treaty and blind

  • Copyrights don’t apply if book is reproduced for visually challenged
  • 2014:India ratified this treaty
  • 2014 : launched Sugamya Pustkalya in line with treaty

Sugamya Bharat Abhiyaan (Accessible India Campaign )

  • Started in 2015
  • For creating Barrier free environment for Disables 
  • The campaign targets three separate verticals for
    • Equality in Accessing built up environment (ie Disable friendly buildings)
    • Equality in Accessing Information and Communication
    • Equality in Accessing Transportation
Accessible India Campaign

What will be done under this?

Accessible India Campaign

Welfare Schemes , Laws and Institutions for Minorities

Welfare Schemes , Laws and Institutions for Minorities

This article deals with ‘Welfare Schemes , Laws and Institutions for Minorities.’ This is part of our series on ‘Governance’ which is important pillar of GS-2 syllabus . For more articles , you can click here

Why Minorities need protection

  • In democratic politics, it is always possible to convert a numerical majority into political power through elections.  This makes minorities politically vulnerable.
  • State Machinery mainly under Majority Community can be used to suppress religious or cultural institutions of Minorities
  • Ambedkar (Constitutional Assembly Debates) : minorities are an explosive force which, if erupts, can blow up the whole fabric of the state. The history of Europe bears ample and appalling testimony to this fact.

Sachar Committee 

In 2005, Government of India formed Sachar Committee under the Chairmanship of Rajinder Sachar (former Chief Justice of Delhi High Court) to study the social, economic and educational condition of Muslims in India.

Main Recommendations

  • Set up an Equal Opportunity Commission 
  • Delimitation procedure should  not reserve constituencies with high minority population for Scheduled Castes. 
  • Increase employment share of Muslims
  • Work out mechanisms to link madarsas with  school board. 
  • Recognise degrees from madarsas for eligibility in defence, civil and banking examinations. 

Population of Minorities

Sachar Committee concluded that

  • Although Muslim population has increased but reason is low socio-economic development
  • Sachar Committee estimates that proportion of Muslims to rise to 18% to 21% by 2101 under different scenarios. 
  • States with highest percentage of Muslims include J&K (67%), Assam (30.9%), West Bengal (25.2%), and Kerala (24.7%).
Sachar Committee Population

School Education of Minorities

  • Educational Status of Muslims is marginally higher than SC/ST.
Overall 74%
SC/ST 52%
Muslims 59%
  • According to Sachar Committee, contrary to the common belief that a large number of Muslim children attend madarsas for primary education, only 4% of Muslim children among the school going age go to madarsas . 
  • Instead, many Muslim children are enrolled in Maktabs, which provide supplementary religious education to children enrollment in public schools. 
Govt 
schools 
Private 
schools 
Madarsas 
4%

Job Share of Muslims

According to Sachar Committee Report, Job Share of Muslims in any government job is not near their population proportion .

Government-related Employment 
IAS 
IFS 
IPS/Security Agencies 
Indian Railways 
Education Department (state level) 
Home Department (state level) 
Police constables 
Health Departments 
Transport Department 
Judiciary Employment 
% Muslim 
3.0 
1.8 
4.0 
4.5 
6.5 
7.3 
6.0 
4.5 
6.5 
7.8

Schemes for  minorities

For the upliftment of minorities, following schemes have been started for the minorities:-

1 . USTAAD

  • Announced in 2014
  • For skilling minority artisans
  • Scheme specially focusses on arts like Kashmiri embroidery, Bengali jardosi, Sikh phulkari embroidery, Buddhist thangka paintings etc.

2. Nai Manzil

  • Was announced in Budget 2014 
  • Skilling Madrassa passouts to join main-stream (computer, english etc)

3. Udaan

  • Skilling J&K youth by Ministry of Home Affairs and National Skills Development Council.

4. Sikho aur Kamao

  • By Ministry of Minority Affairs
  • Person belonging to Minority Community can get computer knowledge , tailoring skill etc from Private Institution and Government to reimburse that institution

5. Nai Roshini Yojana

  • By Ministry of Minority Affairs
  • For generating Leadership among Minority Women

6. Higher Education

Ministry of Minority Affairs is running following Schemes

  • Maulana Azad National Fellowship for M.Phil and PhD( MANAF)
  • Padho Pardesh : Subsidised Loan for foreign Education 

7. Garib Nawaz Skill Development Centres

  • Skill Development Centres will be established in 100 districts
  • Employment-oriented skill development courses  of  short term (2 to 6 months) in fields such as mobile and laptop repairing, security housekeeping training, etc will be given to minority students

8. Jiyo Parsi

  • For Parsi Community
  • Need of the Scheme: Population of Parsi community in India declined by 50% in last 60 years.
  • Objective of Scheme: To target an increase in the Total Fertility Rate of the Parsi community

Welfare Schemes , Laws and Institutions for Transgenders & LGBT

Welfare Schemes , Laws and Institutions for Transgenders & LGBT

This article deals with ‘Welfare Schemes , Laws and Institutions for Transgenders & LGBT.’ This is part of our series on ‘Governance’ which is important pillar of GS-2 syllabus . For more articles , you can click here

Issue 1: Section 377  of IPC

Section 377 of Indian Penal Code states that ‘Whoever voluntarily has carnal inter­course against the order of nature with any man, woman or animal, shall be punished with imprisonment for life  and shall be liable to fine.’

Course of Things

1870 Indian Penal Code (IPC) came to force
2009 Naz foundation case – Delhi High Court declared Section 377 to be unconstitutional . It was held that Section 377 violated Articles 21 & 14  of the Constitution.  
2013 Suresh Kumar Kaushal case – Supreme Court  reversed previous judgement of Delhi High Court & held the validity of Section 377 . However, Supreme Court left it on the Parliament to change it.  

Supreme Court’s judgement in the Suresh Kumar Kaushal  vs NAZ Foundation Case is equaled by experts with Dred Scott case(1857) where the US Supreme Court denied the right of equality to Negros .  
2014 NALSA vs. Union of India
1. Supreme Court recognised a third gender status for transgender people .
2. Gave them the right to self identification of  gender as male, female or third gender.
3. Transgender people are socially and economically backward classes, they should be granted reservations in admissions to educational institutions and jobs

 
2018 Navtej Singh Johar v/s Union of India, 2018 case declared Section 377 of IPC as unconstitutional
Discrimination on the basis of ‘carnal intercourse against the order of nature’ is arbitrary and cannot be used as  classification criteria for purpose of legislative protection under right to equality
– Constitutional morality privileges over social or majoritarian morality.  

Arguments :Homosexuality isn’t unnatural and Section 377 should have been banned

1 . Cultural Aspect

  • This notion is based on Victorian Era  Morality where sex without intent to produce child was considered a sin
  • Books like Kamasutra, Mrichchhakatikam etc shows that it isn’t part of Hindu culture.  Hindu texts are not just open to homosexuality but treat gender as a fluid concept. Eg : Lord Shiva  represented as Ardhnarishwara ie half man & half women .

2. Constitutional Aspect

  • Provisions of Section 377 of IPC infringed
    • Right to Equality
    • Right to Expression  (sexual expression)
    • Right to Privacy (Part of Right to life after Justice Puttaswamy Judgement)

3. International Situation

  • United States , Britain (from where we introduced this law in India) & Nepal (other Hindu nation) etc have recognised LGBT rights

4. Health Aspect

  • Criminalisation of homosexuality leads to harassment by law enforcement agencies driving LGBT community underground . This increases the risk of HIV among the LGBT community 

5. Biological Aspect

  • Homosexuality is not against the order of nature
  • Homophilia is found in 450 species

Issue 2 : TRANSGENDER PERSONS (PROTECTION OF RIGHTS) BILL, 2019

Provisions of the Bill  

  • Definition : transgender means a person whose gender does not match with the gender assigned to  person at birth 
  • Prohibition of  denial of service  to transgenders 
  • Right of residence: transgenders have right to reside  in his household.  
  • Welfare measures like rehabilitation, vocational training etc by the government.
  • Offences and Penalties: It has provision of imprisonment between 6 months and 2 years, and  fine.
  • National Council for Transgender persons (NCT) will be formed to advice the central government wrt transgender persons.

Critical Appraisal of the Bill

  • In  NALSA v. Union of India judgment, SC gave Transgenders right to self-identify their gender as male, female or transgender . But 2019 Bill  doesn’t allow self recognition of gender  as male or female . It only allows for identity certificate as ‘transgender’.
  • Supreme Court in NALSA Case provided for 2% reservation. New bill does not cover reservation provision
  • Compelling Transgenders to beg made  criminal offence => great implications as transgenders are  engaged in begging 
  • It does not give positive rights such as Rights of transgenders to  inheritance of property

Side note – International Examples: Ireland, Argentina and Denmark allows transgender community to self-determine gender 

Welfare Schemes , Laws and Institutions for Manual Scavengers

Welfare Schemes , Laws and Institutions for Manual Scavengers

This article deals with ‘Welfare Schemes , Laws and Institutions for Manual Scavengers.’ This is part of our series on ‘Governance’ which is important pillar of GS-2 syllabus . For more articles , you can click here

Issues with Manual Scavenging

  • Manual Scavengers are mostly Scheduled Castes ( Balmiki caste) who  are involved in manually  removing the human excrement from dry toilets of higher-caste families. In 1901, Mahatma Gandhi termed manual scavenging a national shame
  • Manual Scavengers are considered impure & untouchable (in caste hierarchy resting on Purity & Pollution)  
  • Manual Scavengers have low life expectancy.  Unhygienic work make them vulnerable to various infections 
  • Manual Scavengers are payed low wages and no financial security

Their numbers

  • According to Socio Economic Caste Census (SECC) 2011 –  8 Lakh  manual scavengers 
  • However, actual number is much more

Initiatives already taken

1 . Legal initiatives

  • Manual Scavengers (Prohibition and rehabilitation) Act,2013 
    • A “manual scavenger” is defined as a person who is engaged for manually cleaning  human excreta in an insanitary latrine or in an open drain or on a railway track.
    • If anyone employs a manual scavenger or constructs an insanitary latrine=> imprisonment up to one year or a fine of Rs 50,000 or both. 
    • Each occupier of an insanitary latrine is responsible for demolishing it at his own cost.
    • Tasks the government to  rehabilitate them in other jobs after training
  • National Commission for Safai Karamchari has been formed to protect the interests of Manual Scavengers.

2. Judicial Support

In 2014, Supreme court ordered that

  • Manual  scavenging has to be ended
  • Directed the centre & states to rehabilitate the scavengers 

3. Technology use

  • Installation of bio-digestors at public places and especially in the railways .

4. Swachh Bharat Mission

  • Scheme has a provision to construct the flush toilets and penalize the dry toilet pit construction 

5. Other Initiatives

  • Valmiki Malin Awas Yojana: To provide housing to the safai karamcharis
  • National Scheme for  Rehabilitation of Scavengers: To provide  training  & rehabilitate them

Why we arent able to stop it till now ?

  • Swachh Bharat Abhiyan => currently Rs. 12,000 is given to built latrine =>  poor quality requiring services of scavengers for cleaning septic tanks
  • Term is not properly defined=>  If protective gear is used, then we don’t count it but they still suffer from ritual impurity
  • Western toilets  used in India require more water => in  water scarce villages , people go for dry toilet.

Some incidents in the past

2020Union Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment (MSJE) has revealed that 282 manual scavengers have been killed in last three years in India while cleaning sewers and septic tanks
Jan 2018 3 manual scavengers died in Bangalore
July 2017 4 Manual Scavengers died while cleaning Septic Tank in Delhi

Welfare Schemes , Laws and Institutions for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes

Welfare Schemes , Laws and Institutions for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes

This article deals with ‘Welfare Schemes , Laws and Institutions for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.’ This is part of our series on ‘Governance’ which is important pillar of GS-2 syllabus . For more articles , you can click here

Vulnerable Groups

Groups  that  experience  a  higher  risk  of  poverty  and  social  exclusion  than  the  general  population.  (European Commission)

Following groups can be identified as Vulnerable Groups in India

  1. Schedule Caste
  2. Schedule Tribe
  3. Religious Minorities
  4. Differently Abled Persons
  5. Old age people/ Senior Citizens
  6. Orphans and Street Children
  7. Women
  8. Sexual Minorities  

Reason why they are more vulnerable than other groups is because they lack

  1. Economic capital in the form of material assets and income
  2. Cultural capital such as educational qualifications and status
  3. Social capital in the form of networks of contacts and social associations.

Scheduled Caste & Scheduled Tribe

Safeguarding Measures

1 . Constitutional Measures

1 . 1 Affirmative Action

Article 15(4) State can make special provisions for the advancement of socially and educationally backward class of citizens including Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes
Article 16(4) Reservation in public services
Article 355 Claims of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes shall be taken into consideration in making  appointments to the public services

1 . 2 Protective Measures

Article 17 Abolition of Untouchability
Article 23 Forced labour is  prohibited
Article 25 State is empowered to throw open Hindu religious institutions  to all classes and sections of Hindus

1 .3 Political Measures

Article 330 Reservation of seats in Lok Sabha in proportion of their population
Article 332 Reservation in  Legislative Assembly
Article 243-D(1) Reservation in Panchayat
Article 243-T(1) Reservation in Municipality

1 . 4 Administrative rights 

Schedule 5 Provisions for Scheduled Areas (for more, Click here)
Schedule 6 Provisions for Tribal Areas (for more, Click here)
Article 338 National Commission for Scheduled Castes (for more, Click here)
Article 338-A National Commission for Scheduled Tribes (for more, Click here)

1 .5 Specifically for STs

Article 19(5) State can impose restriction on freedom of movement or residence in the benefit of Scheduled Tribes.
Article 164 Appoint special minister for tribal welfare in the states of MP, Bihar, and Orrisa.
Schedule 5 & 6 Discussed in Polity

2. Legal Measures

2.1 Legal measures for Scheduled Castes

  • Protection of Civil Rights Act (PCRA), 1955 :  deals with untouchability
  • SCs and STs (Prevention of the Atrocities) Act, 1989 :
    • Prevents commission of atrocities against SC/ST by person other than SCs & STs
    • It leads to establishment of special courts for speedy trial of such offence
  • Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation Act, 2013

2.2 Legal measures for Scheduled Tribes

  • SCs and STs (Prevention of the Atrocities) Act, 1989 :
  • Panchayats (Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act, 1996
  • Forest Rights Act, 2006

Constitutional Measure Analysis : Affirmative Action /Reservation

Reservation  in Indian law is quota based affirmative action . 

We have already dealt with Reservation and it’s indepth analysis in another chapter. For reading it, Click here.

Act Analysis : SCs and STs (Prevention of the Atrocities) Act, 1989

MEANING OF THE ATROCITIES UNDER THE ACT

  • The term atrocity has not been defined in law (but list of atrocities is given).

Applicable to

  • Act is applicable in connection with Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes who are subjected to violence and brutalities by any person who is not a member of a Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.

TYPES OF ATROCITIES MENTIONED IN ACT

Atrocities under the act include (but are not limited to):

  1. Social discrimination
  2. Beating, lashing and other forms of torture
  3. Arson-the burning of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes communities and their homes
  4. Violence against women
  5. Bonded labour
  6. Denial of rights, especially land rights
  7. Deny to give job or do business with person belonging to SC/ST
  8. Police abuses against Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and custodial abuse

Imprisonment

  • Person will be put behind the bars at the same instant when FIR is lodged against person
  • No provision of Anticipatory Bail. Bail can only be granted by High Court.
  • Imprisonment ranging for 6 months to life imprisonment

Regarding Government Servant

  • If any government Servant indulge in such activity, there is provision of imprisonment of 6months to 1 year
  • Case can be registered against Government Servant only when he is found guilty in Investigation .

Other Provisions

  • Special Courts to deal with these cases
  • To fight the case, SC/ST is provided with financial aid and lawyer

Working of Act

  • There are only 194 Special courts => only 1 out of 3 district has special court
  • Conviction rate is very low

2018 Judgement on SC/ST (Prevention of Atrocities) Act

Supreme Court’s Judgement-  SC/ST Atrocities Act 1989 is being misused (NCRB data, conviction rate is 15% ) — and checks are needed to prevent such misuse . To check the misuse, Supreme Court placed two checks

  • No FIR should be filed under the SC/ST Atrocities Act till it is investigated by a DSP-level officer
  • No FIR should be registered against government servant under SC /ST Atrocities Act  without the approval of the appointing authority.
  • Anticipatory bail can be given on the orders of Magistrate

August 2018 : Lok Sabha has passed amendment in the Act to nullify the Judgement.

Act Analysis : Forest Rights Act,2006

  • Schedule Tribes and Other Forest Dwellers(Recognition of Forest Rights) Act came into force in 2006.
  • It has been enacted to recognize and vest the forest rights and occupation of forest land in forest dwelling Scheduled Tribes and other traditional forest dwellers, who have been residing in such forests for generations, but whose rights could not be recorded. 

It guarantees following rights

  1. Title Rights : the right in the land is granted to STs and the people who are residing there for 75 years but don’t have documents (maximum 4 hectare)
  2. Right of use of resources. Eg : Minor Forest Produce (honey, herbs etc) , Common Property Resource etc
  3. Relief and Developmental Rights : in case of any displacement of tribals , proper relief packages should be given
  4. Forest Management Rights 

Issues wrt Forest Right Act

  1. Task of documenting the claims of communities is very tedious
  2. Reluctance on the part of bureaucracy
  3. Narrow interpretation of the law
  4. Opposition from wildlife conservationists
  5. Forest Rights Act is often in conflict with other laws e.g. Rights in protected areas like wildlife sanctuaries, national parks etc.

Way forward

  • Political will should be there
  • Devolution of fund, functions and functionaries
  • Awareness among the tribals about their rights

Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTG)

  • 1973 : Dhebar Commission created Primitive Tribal Groups (PTGs) as a separate category, who are less developed among the tribal groups. 
  •  2006 : Government of India renamed it to Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs).
  • At present, they are 75 in number.
Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups
Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups

PVTGs have some basic characteristics

  • Small population.
  • Relatively physically isolated.
  • Absence of written language
  • Subsistence => hunting or gathering.
  • Zero or negative population growth.
  • Extremely low level of literacy.

Problems faced by them

  • Growth of PVTGs’ population is either stagnating or declining
  • Health status of PVTGs is in an awful condition because of  poverty, illiteracy, lack of safe drinking water, bad sanitary conditions etc
  • Condition of education is also very poor, with an average literacy rate of 10% to 44% in PVTGs.

Scheme: Scheme for Development of PVTGs

  • It identifies 75 PVTGs as the most vulnerable among the Scheduled Tribes. 
  • It gives state governments flexibility in planning initiatives. 
  • Long term Conservation cum Development plan for five years for each PVTG to be established by States.
  • Scheme is funded entirely by Central government.

Schemes for upliftment of SCs and STs

1 . Umbrella Scheme for SCs

  • After rationalisation of Centrally Sponsored  Schemes, all the Schemes for Scheduled Castes are taken under one Grand scheme that is Umbrella Scheme for Scheduled Castes which is Core of the Core Scheme and is 100% Centrally Sponsored

Some of the Schemes under this are

Educational Empowerment 1. Pre-Matric Scholarships to SC Students  
2. Post Matric Scholarship   
3. Full financial support for pursuing studies beyond 12th class, in notified institutes of excellence like IITs, NITs,  IIMs, reputed Medical/Law and other institutions.
4. National Fellowship: Financial assistance to SC students for pursuing research studies     
5. National Overseas Scholarship:  for pursuing higher studies of Master level  and PhD programmes abroad.  
6. Babu Jagjivan Ram Chhatrawas Yojna
Economic Empowerment 1. Standup India  
2. Venture Capital Fund for Scheduled Castes

2. Stand Up India

  • Every bank branch will provide
    • loan from Rs 10 lakh to Rs 1 crore
    • to one Dalit or Adivasi member and one woman each
    • For greenfield enterprises in the non-farm sector without collateral.

3. Eklavya Schools

  • Budget 2018 : announced establishment of Eklavya Schools.
  • To be established in all Tribal blocks with more than 50% ST population
  • Ekalavya schools will provide boarding and lodging facilities to tribal students.
  • These schools will have special facilities for preserving local art and culture besides providing training in sports and skill development.

e-Governance

e-Governance

In this article, we will look into topic of e-Governance in India. In the syllabus of GS 2 , following aspects have been mentioned wrt e-Governance

  • applications
  • models
  • successes
  • limitations, and
  • potential

What is e-Governance

Using  Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in government functioning with aim of making it (SMART) simple, moral, accountable , responsive and transparent

In whole process , government  use  Information and Communication Technology as tool

Note : It is not just using Apps or Websites for purpose of governance (as people assume it commonly) . Infact, it covers use of whole range of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools.

Models of E-Governance

5 models of e-Governance are given by American Prof Arie Halachmi (from IGNOU Public Administration)

Models of e-Governance

Model 1 : Broadcasting

What Use of  Information and Communication Technology & Media to disseminate / broadcast governance info that is already present in paper form.
Application 1. Broadcasting Laws, Rules , Judgements, result-marksheet on internet
2. Information about tourist spots, fees, taxes etc on government sites

Model 2 : Critical Flow

What Some what like broadcasting
– Release critical information through  Information and Communication Technology /media to targeted audience  .
Application 1. Inform Pregnant women’s address to ASHA worker so that she can take proper care of that women

2. Making available corruption related data about a particular Ministry / Division/ Officials online to its electoral constituency or to the concerned regulatory body.  

Model 3 : Comparative Analysis

  • More popular in 3rd World nations
  • They create Benchmark parameters (for parameters like Infant Mortality Rate, Maternal Mortality Rate, Life expectancy etc) & then measure Regional parameters at District , State & National level to compare it with benchmark parameters

Model 4 : e-Advocacy Model

What 1. Make some online forum & start gathering opinion of public for particular policy.
2. Other way to use is to place opinion of eminent persons on online forum & try to convert public opinion towards opinion of those persons .
Application 1. Human Resources beyond Boundaries : Can use human resources beyond geographical & bureaucratic barriers  

2. 2 way channel : People can also tell what they think & what they want .

Model 5 : Interactive Services

What – It is 2 way channel
– Mainly used in providing public services online to public .
– Government to Consumer to Government Model (G2C2G Model)
Application 1. Financial E-Payment of Taxes  & getting slip of payment (paying tax is C2G and Getting slip is G2C)  

2. Polity/Accountability : E-Referendums , opinion Polls  (Government asking opinion is G2C & People giving opinion is C2G)

3. E-Grievance Redressal like SWAGAT in Gujarat

4. Human Resource Development : E-Education, E-Gyankosh  (give education via internet to people and the take online exams from Public)

ICT initiatives in Governance

1 . e-Vidhan

  • Using e-Governance  in Legislative Process .
  • It is a mission mode project to make  functioning of State Legislatures  paperless

It is Software suite of

  • Public website
  • Secure website (for members)
  • mobile apps

that fully automate the functioning of legislative assembly 

  • Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs is the Nodal Ministry for the project.
  • Himachal Pradesh became the first state to use e-vidhan site and launch a mobile app

What will be done

  1. No papers in the House. All replies to questions, copies of bills and reports will be provided online
  2. MLAs will use touch-screen device at their tables
  3. Government departments will communicate with Vidhan Sabha online for sending replies to approved questions
  4. Government will cut down expenditure incurred on use of paper and other overheads.
  5. Digital audio and video recordings facility available.
  6. Common people will also get access to important documents and videos
  7. Common people can also ask question to MLA through the mobile app and public website.

2. e-Samiksha

  • e-Samiksha is an online monitoring and compliance mechanism developed by Cabinet secretariat 
  • It is used for tracking the progress on projects & policy initiatives by cabinet secretary and PM on a real-time basis.
  • e-Patrachar facility has been launched which sends meeting notices and agendas, circulars, letters, etc. through e-mail and SMS .
e-Samiksha

3. UPaAI System

  • UPAAI is a hindi word meaning ‘solution’.
  • UPaAI = Unified Planning and Analysis Interface
  • It will provide an integrated platform for data on infrastructure and social indices for each constituency to the MP  and help him or her take better decisions related to MPLAD funds and also other Central Schemes.
  • It will be monitored by PMO too
  • In the next phase, it will be extended to include state schemes, and bring district magistrates and members of legislative assemblies on same platform.

4. Government e-Marketplace (GeM)

  • GeM aims to ensure that public procurement of goods and services   is carried out through the online platform.
  • It promotes transparency & eliminates corruption.
  • Helpful in easy auditing because it will leave audit trail
Government e-Marketplace

5. e-Office

  • NIC has developed e-Office to transform the traditional functioning of departments of the governments.
  • It has functions like
    • Unified Internal Messaging 
    • e-Filing : To make digital files and share it with others
    • e-Financial Management
    • Knowledge Management System providing important documents and files accessible at any place
e-Office

e-Technology in the aid of farmers

ICT can be used to provide extension services to the farmers (extension services are those services which change outlook of farmers to use scientific research and new knowledge in farming practices )

Examples where e-Technology is used in aid of farmers

1 . e-Nam

  • Using ICT , farmer can sell his product anywhere in India
  • Helps in better price realisation .
e-NAM

2. m-Kisan Portal

  • Run by Agriculture Ministry
  • There are more than 800 websites of union & state departments of Agriculture, Animal Husbandry & Fisheries but due to Digital Divide web traffic is dismal
  • Govt came up with innovative idea to leverage advantage from 40 crore mobiles in rural areas. M-Kisan portal is used in two ways
    • Push SMS system used to send advisory to farmers by Government
    • Pull SMS & USSD used by farmers for asking queries
  • USSD module of M-Kisan : Faster & efficient than SMS and works on any mobile with nominal charge of ₹6/month
m-Kisan Portal

3. e-Mausam Krishi Seva

  • Weather information is send
  • Can be received both online or through SMS by registering on online portal
e-Mausam Krishi Seva

4. Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY)

  • PMFBY aims to assess the damage to crops for insurance purposes through GPS aided mobile images, satellite and Drone imagery. This will improve accuracy and compensation.

5. PUSA Krishi App

  • Developed by Indian Council of Agricultural Research
  • Functions
    • Information about various varieties of particular crop and the region it is best suited for 
    • Information about animal feed and bio-fertilizers
  • Farmers can get realtime solutions from ICAR Scientists by posting their queries there
PUSA Krishi App

6. e-Krishi Kiran 

  • Site for farmers of Gujarat State
  • Connects farmer with various government departments & Universities
  • Farmer just have to provide his land record number and all information would be given back to him
e-Krishi Kiran

Private Sector using E-technology in the Aid of Farmer

1 . Kisan Raja

  • For controlling the ON/OFF switch of water motors using mobile .
Kisan Raja

2. Nirantara

  • Horticulture app made by Bangalore based company

Use of e-Technology in Education

How  Information and Communication Technology (ICT) helps in spreading quality Education .

Time-Money-Location constrains gone 
• Knowledge sharing without time, money, location constrains 
• Synchronous learning: live lecture, google hangout 
• Asynchronous: recorded/ blog. 
Student benefit 
• Pace determined by learner 
• more interaction with teacher 
• Internet forum, idea-exchange, eutoff-speculation 
Skill / youth 
• Massive open source online leaning systems; LMS- learning 
management system (Egyankosh, Moodle) 
• Digital library: less staff, faster search and dispatch, 24x7; 
no copyright issues for blind (WIPO Marrakesh Treaty)

Schemes

1 . Swayam Portal

  • Started in June 2017 by Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD)
  • Web portal where Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) will be available on all kinds of subjects.
  • System also allows the transfer of credits that a college student earns from a course on Swayam directly into their academic records
Swayam Portal

2. Swayam Prabha TV

  • It is group of 32 channels telecasted on DTH to deliver educational content
  • Institutions like IGNOU, IIT Bombay, IIT Delhi etc are the contributing partners.

3. e – Pathshala

  • Provides access to textbooks &  other resources 
  • Developed by the NCERT
e-Pathshala

4. e-Basta Platform

Student and Teachers open account on this platform

Publisher Publisher can place e-books on this portal & students can buy e-books from this platform.
No piracy  because publisher himself will be selling his book .
Teacher Can bundle e-books , maps & videos as per his module and send to account of students
This is e-Basta
Students Students can access anywhere , anytime & don’t have to carry any weight

5. Vidya Lakshmi Portal

  • Started in 2015 Budget
  • Single portal where student can apply for loan from multiple banks & scholarship from government
Vidya Lakshmi Portal

6. PRIVATE Platforms

There are numerous private educational platforms like

  • Khan Academy (pioneer in online free classes)
  • Unacadamy
  • Udemy (best lecture on all subjects from coding to literature by private teachers who are best in their field)

ICT in Public Health

1 . ECHO Clinic

  • Under this concept of weekly or fortnightly classes held by best specialists using teleconferencing to reach out to under-served areas. 
  • It does not provide care directly to patients like in telemedicine. Instead, they equip primary healthcare clinicians in remote areas with the knowledge and support to manage complex cases.

2. Mera Aspataal

  • Mera Aspataal’- (My Hospital) application is an IT based feedback system to collect information on patients’ level of satisfaction
  • Implemented in Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh.

3. NEHA

  • National E-Health Authority
  • When patient go from one hospital to other he/she is asked for undergoing same tests . Using this portal data of all past health checkups is recorded in his account so that doctor can check his past health history

4. Pharma Jan Samadhaan

  • Under NPPA (National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority)
  • Complaint can be launched on this portal if
    • Particular drug is overpriced or
    • There is non availability of particular drug or
    • Sold without approval
  • Actions within 48 hours is assured
Jan Pharma Samadhan

5. Kilkari Project

  • It is mobile voice message service  launched by Government of India with help of Melinda & Gates Foundation
  • Deliver weekly messages to families about pregnancy, family planning, nutrition, childbirth and maternal and child care.
  • Database for the Kilkari programme will be taken from the successful Mother and Child Tracking System (MCTS) . Every woman registered with MCTS will receive weekly messages 
  • In all, 72 free audio messages, each of about two-minute duration, will reach targeted beneficiaries from the fourth month of pregnancy until the child is a year old.

6. ANMOL

  • ANMOL is a tablet-based application that allows ANMs to enter and update data for beneficiaries of their jurisdiction. 
  • This will ensure more prompt entry and regular upgradation of data

7. MCTS

  • Mother and Child Tracking System
  • It is a tracking system to ensure all pregnant women receive their antenatal care check ups and children receive free immunization

8. E-Shushrut

  • Patient Management System
  • Developed by C-DAC

 Use of ICT in Policing & Public Order

1 . Khoya Paya Portal

  • 70 thousand children in India go missing each year & forced to child labour, sex trafficking to middle east
  • On this portal
    • parent & other known can upload photo & information about the lost child or
    • if somebody has found or sighted some lost child
  • Note-  this is not FIR which need to be filed separately
Khoya Paya Portal

2. CCTNS

  • Crime & Criminals Tracking Network System
  • System will change to Online record keeping for better police management , intelligence sharing & case tracking

3. Virtual Police Station for Public

  • Launched in National Capital Region
  • International NGO Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative (CHRI) has developed this
  • First-of-its kind training tool to acquaint public with the functioning of a police station

4. Surakshit Naari, Sashakt Naari

Following things done under this scheme

  • Panic Button & GPS System in Mobiles => women can send distress signal and her current location 
  • 181 – Universal Women Helpline number which will be active 24X7
  • Himmat App 
  • CCTV Surveillance cameras in trains to be installed . 
  • Middle Bay in trains reserved for women.

Benefits

1 . In Administration

  • It helped in decreasing distance between government and citizen
  • It has also helped in increasing citizen participation in governance
  • Resulted in increasing transparency and accountability

2. To Society

  • Inclusive growth : Those who cant afford education are getting it via MOOCs
  • Telemedicine and projects like Kilkari etc helping pregnant women and reducing IMR, MMR etc

3. To Economy

  • It has resulted in Ease of doing business
  • Farmers are getting extension services helping to increase the productivity of farmers.
  • Tax compliance has been increasing as it has become easy to file taxes
  • Resulted in less leakage in subsidy via JAM

Challenges

  • E-governance is seen more as computerisation & office automation  rather than as a means to transform citizens from passive to active participants in governance.  
  • Digital Divide => Rural vs Urban & Male vs Female => Approximately 70% of the population lives in rural areas where illiteracy is high.
  • Funding to these programs is short in comparison to our huge ambitions we have placed on these schemes
  • Privacy & No Data Protection Law (Legal Vacuum)  : Aadhar information & other records are to be used but there is no law to ensure privacy will be insured  .
  • Quality of Local content is not good. Most of portals aren’t user friendly. 
  • No special programmes to make public aware about these programmes. Mere ads willn’t serve the purpose.
  • Status Quo attitude of the government departments : Despite a push given to e-governance initiatives, many government departments continue insisting upon physical forms and signatures.
  • Security and privacy of information is a technical challenge for e-governance implementation as people are wary about sharing their information with the government agencies.

Conclusion : Kentaro Toyama, formerly CEO of Microsoft India, has shown IT intervention has limited impact on developmental outcomes when the political will is absent. This is because technology can only be the ‘force multiplier’, it is not the force itself. The positive intent must originate in politics and motivate the bureaucracy to deliver on its mandate.