Subash Chandra Bose has joined Non Cooperation Movement after resigning from Indian Civil Services & since then has been promising dynamic young leader of Congress
He nurtured revolutionary ideas & was never fully happy with Gandhi’s philosophy & technique of political agitation
1924 : He was appointed as CEO of Calcutta Corporation & government was suspicious of his connections with revolutionaries
1928 : He was GOC of Congress volunteers in Calcutta session of congress. During this period he, like JL Nehru & other young Congressmen came to be influenced by communist ideas & became more critical of Gandhi’s policy & programmes
Bose differed fundamentally from Gandhi on vital issues such as industrialisation & India’s attitude towards British Government during coming World War . He was critical of rightist Gandhites who he felt, exploited Mahatma’s influence to promote personal interests .
Bose complained that Rightists were engaged in power politics & were trying to beat down all opposition within Congress so that they might continue to enjoy power for years . However, Gandhi was still anxious to keep left wing within congress to preserve organisational unity & support Bose’s candidature for Presidentship in 1938.
Haripura Congress (1938 Session) adopted a resolution which firmly expressed the Congress’s disapproval for war preparations. It asserted that India could not be party to imperialist war & she would not permit her man power& resources to be exploited in interest of British Imperialism.
Gandhi didn’t view with favour the Congress attitude of uncompromising opposition to British Government . He also didn’t agree with Draft Plan of Industrialisation & National Development prepared by National Planning Committee of Congress which was set on the initiative of SC Bose who strongly believed in industrialisation, land reform & modernisation of agriculture
Next session was to be held in Tripuri in March 1939 . Gandhi opposed election of Bose & lent his support to candidature of Pattabhi Sitaramayya as President. Bose said that he represented the ‘new ideas, ideologies, problems and programmes’ that had emerged with ‘the progressive sharpening of the anti-imperialist struggle in India.’ The Presidential elections, he said, should be fought among different candidates ‘on the basis of definite problems & programmes.” Old guard rejected saying that Congress President was like that of a constitutional head who represented & symbolized the unity & solidarity of the nation. Bose won by narrow margin . Gandhi issued statement describing Sitaramayya’s defeat as his own defeat which caused much consternation in the country & rallied large section of leading Congressmen against Congress President
Tripuri Congress adopted following resolutions
Reiterated the goal of independence & rejecting of Federal Part of the Act of 1935 .
It demanded a constitution for free India through a Constituent Assembly elected by people on basis of adult franchise & without any interference by foreign authority
Condemned imperialist British Foreign Policy as well as fascism in clear terms
Gandhi’s advice was still considered essential for Congress & National Movement . Breakaway from Gandhian policy and program was impossible for Congress . Gandhi wing as Bose calls pro-Gandhi group in this Indian struggle made it impossible for Congress President to function effectively resulting in deadlock in organisation
Situation made Bose realise that in absence of an organised & disciplined left wing , it was impossible to balance the Gandhi wing . He felt that primary political need was an organised & disciplined Left Wing Party in Congress . He resigned from Presidentship & founded Forward Bloc . It was intended to be a radical & progressive party within Congress with view of rallying entire left wing under one banner . But the differences were so deep rooted & fundamental that very soon Forward Bloc became separate independent body
BOSE REVOLT has not been regarded as struggle between left and right but as conflict arising out of personal differences between Bose and Gandhi. Their style of leadership were different.
Immediate cause of final rift between two was Bose’s view in favour of forming a coalition ministry in Bengal which was opposed by Congress old guard , conflict between Bose & Patel over Vithalbhai Patel’s leaving a legacy of ₹ 1Lakh to Bose for carrying on propaganda abroad in favour of Indian struggle for Independence and Bose’s insistence on an immediate showdown with British Government
But by far the more crucial issues were the attitude of Congress to imminent war in Europe , question of priority in national planning & formulation of economic policy , Bose’s total loss in a purely non violent policy & his fiery patriotism which made him impatient for attainment of India’s freedom .
In January 1940, Gandhi wrote to C.F. Andrews describing Subhash as “my son”-but a “spoilt child of the family” who needed to be taught a lesson for his own good.
Gandhi had three reasons for not starting immediate movement
Since cause of Britain & France was just, they shouldn’t be embarrassed in the prosecution of war
Lack of Hindu -Muslim unity . Hence, starting mass movement will start rioting .
Congress wasn’t organizationally fit to sustain movement because of rampant corruption .