This article deals with ‘Gaganyaan‘. This is part of our series on ‘Science and Technology’ which is important pillar of GS-3 syllabus . For more articles , you can click here


  • ISS= International Space Station.
  • International Space Station (ISS) is a space station
  • Space Station can be defined as a habitable artificial satellite in Low Earth orbit.
  • US, Japan, Russia, Canada etc have invested in  International space station.
  • China is building its own Space Station called Tiangong 

Earlier, MIR was Space Station of USSR .

Uses of Space Stations

  • It acts as Microgravity Lab.
  • It serves  as Space Terminal.
  • It can also be used in Space Tourism.

Space Craft

  • As Satellite Launch Vehicles are used to send satellites in the Orbits . In same way, Space craft is used to send Astronauts in the space.
  • Examples  include China’s Shenzhou, America’s Atlantis , Russia’s Soyuz and SpaceX’s Dragon Capsule
  • Here comes the role of India’s Gaganyaan


  • Gaganyaan = India’s first manned space-craft. In 15 Aug Speech , PM Modi set target of 2022 for Space Manned Mission
  • India will become 4th country after US, Russia and China to have this capability


1984 Rakesh Sharma became first and only Indian Citizen to travel to space
2007 First proposal for ISRO’s manned space mission
Dec 2014 Experimental flight of manned mission launcher GSLV MK-III tested
15 Aug 2018 PM Modi Speech => announced that Gaganyaan will be launched by 2022
2022 Will be launched

Earlier Manned Missions

Spacecrafts of various countries
Vostok 1 Mission (USSR,1961) Took Yuri Gagarin of Soviet Union into space making him the world’s first human in space
Mercury Mission (USA, 1961) Alan Spepard was the first American send to space
Shenzou (China, 2003) This mission put first Chinese citizen in space
Rakesh Kumar Rakesh Kumar was the first Indian send to space on Russian Soyuz Space vehicle

What will Gaganyaan Project include ?

  • Manned mission
  • GSLV MK-III to  carry  a  3-member crew  to  the  Low Earth Orbit and  safe return  to  the  Earth after duration of few  orbits  to  two  days. 
  • Extendable  version of spaceship will allow  flights  upto  7 days &  docking  capability  with  space  stations 

Key Components of Human Space  Program

  • Buidling up a Habitable Module
  • Other life support systems like Space Suits
  • Astronaut training
  • Capabilities for recovering Astronauts safely
  • Crew Escape System

Benefits / Significance of Human Space Program

  • It will help India in doing Research and Development in space => Indian scientists will get opportunity to conduct experiments in space through Gaganyaan Mission
  • It will encourage our scientific community =>   will help in making India a knowledge based economy.
  • Manned Space Program are important to control resources present outside the earth. Infact, if in future we plan to setup colonies outside earth, such programs will be very important.
  • Symbolism of achieving great power status
  • It will increase the soft power of India

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