This article deals with ‘India-Pakistan Relations.’ This is part of our series on ‘International Relations’ which is important pillar of GS-2 syllabus . For more articles , you can click here
|Common history||Pakistan was part of India before 1947 Pakistan was formed on the basis of Two Nation Theory |
|J&K Conflict||– Post independence => Issue of Accession of Kashmir => Pakistani Army under guise of Tribals attacked Kashmir => Resulted in creation of Pakistani Occupied Kashmir (PoK) & J&K |
– Since then J&K remained the core issue between India & Pakistan
|Cross border Terrorism||Most of the terrorist attacks that occur in India have their origin in Pakistan |
India is victim of terrorism number of times
– 2001 : attack on Parliament
– 2008 : Mumbai attacks
– 2016 : Pathankot Airbase Attack
– 2016 : Uri attack on Military base
– 2019 : Pulwama Attack These have impacted India’s relations with Pakistan
|Nuclear Issue||– Till 1998 , both states had Nuclear Weapons |
– Pakistan is making Tactical Weapons Pakistani Nuclear Button in hands of Pakistani Army => Any incident can result in Nuclear war
Issue 1 : Indus Water Treaty
Indus Water treaty
- Signed in 1960
- Brokered by World Bank
- Allocates the water in following manner
|Eastern rivers||Western rivers|
|This water belongs to India exclusively.||This water belongs to Pakistan. However, India can make limited use and build run of the river hydro Projects but can’t divert waters|
It is said to be the most successful water treaty in the world as it has survived various India-Pakistan wars
Should India (unilaterally) Review Indus Water Treaty
Why in news
- Pakistan stoping India to make projects like Kishanganga HEP taking India to International Court of Arbitration on minor grounds
- Pakistan sponsoring attacks on India => Blood and Water cant flow together
Yes , India should review
- In 1960 , India gave most genuine deal to lower riparian state with hope that Pakistan will ensure peace => Pakistan didn’t keep its end of bargain
- Kashmir has been suffering because they cant utilise three rivers ie Indus , Jhelum and Chenab. Even Kashmir Assembly has passed Resolution to revoke the Indus Treaty twice
- Given the climate change and melting of the glaciers , review of treaty is must .
Other points to keep in mind
- It can worsen India’s terror problems => Pakistan use Indian control over water to recruit terrorists & justify fight for Kashmir to have control on Indus .
- India is lower riparian state in case of many rivers like Satluj, Brahmaputra etc. China can stop water & India will not have moral high ground to oppose it
- Indus Water Treaty was signed under guarantee of World Bank. => India needs funds from World Bank
- It will help Pakistan to Internationalise Kashmir Issue
- Legally, abrogating the treaty isn’t workable. There is no clause regarding one party unilaterally denouncing the treaty. Treaty can be modified only when both the countries ratify the modifications.
Issue 2 : Kashmir Issue
- This is issue of three contesting nationalisms ie Indian, Pakistani & Kashmir. (Kashmiri people too want to make independent sovereign state of Kashmir)
- After Independence (& division) , Tribals attacked Kashmir and were able to control some part now known as Pakistani Occupied Kashmir (PoK). At the same time, ruler of Kashmir signed Instrument of Accession with India .
- JL Nehru under the influence of Mountbatten took the issue of J&K to UN for dispute resolution . It was decided in UN that two states would maintain the status quo ie Pakistani infiltrators which came to Kashmir would withdraw & then plebiscite would take place . But for this , they should have withdrawn from PoK . Since they never withdrew, the issue of plebiscite which at that moment was agreed by India too doesn’t arise now
- Later it became part of Cold war politics . This issue was regularly supported by US because Pakistan was part of capitalist block & India stalled all such move with help of veto power of Russia.
- In Shimla Agreement,1972 , it was decided that India & Pakistan would resolve this issue bilaterally & any third power wouldn’t be involved.
- After big wars , Pakistan came to conclusion that they cant snatch J&K forcefully from India. Hence, they started proxy war against india & weaponised & trained militants . This movement became very powerful in 1990s
- In 1990s & 2000s , people were also alienated from government because of alleged frauds in elections.
Issue 3 : Terrorism
- Pre 1990 – Pakistan not ready to speak on anything except Kashmir
- Post 1990 – India not ready to have dialogue on anything except Terrorism
- Almost all Terror attacks in India originate from Pakistan
- 2001 : Parliament Attack
- 2008 : Attack in Mumbai
- 2016 : Pathankot Airbase Attack
- 2016 : Uri Attack
- 2019 : 44 CRPF Men killed in IED attack in Pulwama
- Terrorist groups which attack India are active in Pakistan & terrorists are trained on Pakistani soil eg Jaish e Mohammad , Hizb ul Muzahidin etc
Why Pakistan is using Terrorism as tool
- Realisation that Pakistan cant defeat India in conventional war.
- Using Nuclear Bluff since world will not let two nuclear powered nations to go on war.
- ISI and Pakistan Army’s approach of ‘Bleeding India by Thousand Cuts’
What should be India’s Response
- Isolate Pakistan at international front
- Use Financial Action Task Force (FATF) to blacklist Pakistan (Pakistan is already in Greylist) => Pakistan’s economy will suffer as no investment will come
- Mossad Way : carry out covert operations inside Pakistan to kill high-value human targets
- Pressurising China to stop giving unconditional support given to Pakistan
Issue 4 : Siachin Glacier
Importance of Siachen glacier :
- Largest source of freshwater in Indian sub continent
- Source of Nubra river : that feeds mighty Indus
- Siachen is near Karakoram pass , forming almost a triangle with India , China & Pakistani Occupied Kashmir
- Line of Control (LOC) in J&K is as per Shimla Agreement of 1972 but boundary line was specified only till NJ-9842 from where Siachen starts . Both countries claim Siachin belongs to it.
- Matter was Non-Controversial till 1980s when India found out that Pakistan army was attempting to capture Siachen . Indian army launched Operation Meghdoot and Indian troops captured it
- Now India controls the heights
Should Siachen be Demilitarised?
|Yes||– India lost around thousand army personnel due to weather related casualties and Rs 7,500 crore was spent on military operations in the last 4 years |
– At Siachen glacier, temperatures dip to as low as – 45° C, is world’s highest & toughest battle field.
– Due to global warming, glaciers are becoming very unstable . As a result frequency of Avalanches has increased
– Demilitarization would increase trust and confidence between India and Pakistan.
|No||Siachen is strategically important to India for number of reasons. |
– Saltoro ridge at Siachen overlooks entire region and provides advantage of height
– Control of area prevents Pakistani and Chinese troops from linking up.
– Pakistan control over Siachin will make Leh and Kargil vulnerable
Way Forward : India can demilitarise the Siachin Glacier provided that present situation is recorded and Pakistam assures to maintain status quo .
Issue 5 : Sir Creek
Sir Creek is 96 km strip of water that is disputed between India & Pakistan dividing Rann region of Gujarat & Sindh province of Pakistan
lies in the interpretation
of the maritime line
between Pakistan & India
- Pakistan lays claim to the entire creek as per Sind Government Resolution of 1914 signed between then Government of Sindh and Rao Maharaj of Kutch
- India sticks to its position that the boundary lies mid-channel as depicted in another map drawn in 1925
- India supports its stance by citing the Thalweg doctrine in International law.
- Issue involves losing a vast amount of Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) rich with gas and mineral deposits
Problems arising due to unresolved dispute
- Maritime boundry isn’t properly demarcated => creates confusion for fishermen => their boats cross boundaries & end up being arrested by the other side.
- Creates security problem
- Terrorists are frequently using this route to enter India
- Even 2008 Mumbai Attackers used this route
- Cartels (drugs & illegal weapons etc) transact their business in the disputed waters, so that they are beyond the reach of both Indian and Pakistani agencies.
Way forward for resolution
Designating the non-delineated area ie Sir Creek and its approaches-as a zone of disengagement or a jointly administered maritime park.