Initiatives for Women

Initiatives for Women

In this article, we will discuss topic titled ‘Initiatives for Women’.


Note- This article is part of our initiative on Society for UPSC. For more articles, click here.




Provisions related to Women Safety & Government initiatives

Initiatives for Women
Initiatives for Women

Constitutional measures

  • Right to Equality under Article 14
  • Equal pay for equal work under Article 39(d) (DPSP) 
  • Article 42 : Maternity Leave
  • Renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women under Article 51(A) (e) (Fundamental Duty)




  • Vishakha Judgement – regarding protection of women at workplace.
  • Shyara Bano case – Triple Talaq declared unconstitutional
  • Laxmi vs Union of India => For Acid Attacks
      • Don’t sell acid to person under 18.
      • Sell acid only if they show identity proof and purpose of purchase
      • Record the sale details and submit them to police.
      • Sell only non-harmful form of acid.




Statutory Provisions

1.Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956

2.Dowry Prohibition Act,1961

  • Making dowry demands in wedding arrangements is declared illegal.

3.Indecent   Representation   of   Women (Prohibition)  Act,   1987

4. Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005

5. Sexual Harassment At Workplace Act

  • Based on Vishakha Guidelines
  • Internal Complaints Committee to deal with cases of Sexual Harassment at workplace

6. Maternity Benefit (Amendment) Act 2017

  • increased women’s leave entitlements from 12 to 26 weeks

7. Equal Remuneration Act, 1976 

8. Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (PCPNDT) Act, 2003.

9. Various provisions of IPC and CrPC



Convention on Elimination  of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)

  • India ratified it in 1993.





Government’s Schemes  to Empower Women


  • PM Suraksheet Matritva Yojana (SMY) (2016)
        • Ante – Natal (before birth) checkup for pregnant women on 9th of every month by specialist


  • Janani Suraksha Yojana (2005)
        • To promote Institutional delivery of the pregnant women


  • PM Matru Vandana Yojana 
        • ₹ 6,000 to be given to all mothers
        • To be given in Installments (6th Month pregnancy || 3 months after birth || 6 months after birth)
        • For  first  two  children
  • Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana (PMUY)
      • Safeguard the health of women & children by providing them with a clean cooking fuel – LPG


  • To Combat Diseases among Pregnant Women & infants
        • Anaemia : Major problem in Pregnant women.  Iron Folic Acid Supplements given
        • Diarrhoea : Large number of infants die because of this . ORS and Zinc Tablets are given



New Schemes

PM Mahila Shakti Kendra
      • To be set-up at village level in all Anganwadi Centres. 
      • It will Empower women through training and capacity building


Sakhi– one stop centre scheme Provide  support ( rescue , medical and legal, psychological support ) to women affected by  Domestic Violence






Beti Bachao Beti Padhao (most Important Scheme)


  1. Prevent female foeticide &  infanticide
  2. Ensure every girl child is educated (beti padhao)


100 % funded by Centre



Salient Features of Beti Bachao Beti Padhao Yojana

  • Task Force  under District Collector
  • Ensure strict implementation of PCPNDT Act
  • Strict implementation of POCSO Act  (POCSO= Protection of children from sexual offenses)
  • Sukanya Samridhi Yojana : Small Saving Scheme under Beti Bachao Beti Padhao





What more should be done

Reproductive Health 

      • Shift focus from female sterilisation to male sterilisation.



      • Mission mode approach for literacy among women



      • Assessment of  incidence of poverty by gender
      • Recognizing women’s unpaid work
      • Rights of women to immovable property.


Governance and Decision Making

      • Number of women legislatures should be improved



Environment and Climate Change

      • Climate change will impact Women the most =>
        • higher temperatures will increase their labour in food processing & collection of potable water
        • Global warming => low food => it will  affect females more than males due to unequal intra-household food allocations
      • Programs should place women at center stage


      • Recognizing special needs of single women including widows, separated, divorced and deserted






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