Welfare Schemes , Laws and Institutions for Minorities

Welfare Schemes , Laws and Institutions for Minorities

This article deals with ‘Welfare Schemes , Laws and Institutions for Minorities.’ This is part of our series on ‘Governance’ which is important pillar of GS-2 syllabus . For more articles , you can click here

Why Minorities need protection

  • In democratic politics, it is always possible to convert a numerical majority into political power through elections.  This makes minorities politically vulnerable.
  • State Machinery mainly under Majority Community can be used to suppress religious or cultural institutions of Minorities
  • Ambedkar (Constitutional Assembly Debates) : minorities are an explosive force which, if erupts, can blow up the whole fabric of the state. The history of Europe bears ample and appalling testimony to this fact.

Sachar Committee 

In 2005, Government of India formed Sachar Committee under the Chairmanship of Rajinder Sachar (former Chief Justice of Delhi High Court) to study the social, economic and educational condition of Muslims in India.

Main Recommendations

  • Set up an Equal Opportunity Commission 
  • Delimitation procedure should  not reserve constituencies with high minority population for Scheduled Castes. 
  • Increase employment share of Muslims
  • Work out mechanisms to link madarsas with  school board. 
  • Recognise degrees from madarsas for eligibility in defence, civil and banking examinations. 

Population of Minorities

Sachar Committee concluded that

  • Although Muslim population has increased but reason is low socio-economic development
  • Sachar Committee estimates that proportion of Muslims to rise to 18% to 21% by 2101 under different scenarios. 
  • States with highest percentage of Muslims include J&K (67%), Assam (30.9%), West Bengal (25.2%), and Kerala (24.7%).
Sachar Committee Population

School Education of Minorities

  • Educational Status of Muslims is marginally higher than SC/ST.
Overall 74%
SC/ST 52%
Muslims 59%
  • According to Sachar Committee, contrary to the common belief that a large number of Muslim children attend madarsas for primary education, only 4% of Muslim children among the school going age go to madarsas . 
  • Instead, many Muslim children are enrolled in Maktabs, which provide supplementary religious education to children enrollment in public schools. 
Govt 
schools 
Private 
schools 
Madarsas 
4%

Job Share of Muslims

According to Sachar Committee Report, Job Share of Muslims in any government job is not near their population proportion .

Government-related Employment 
IAS 
IFS 
IPS/Security Agencies 
Indian Railways 
Education Department (state level) 
Home Department (state level) 
Police constables 
Health Departments 
Transport Department 
Judiciary Employment 
% Muslim 
3.0 
1.8 
4.0 
4.5 
6.5 
7.3 
6.0 
4.5 
6.5 
7.8

Schemes for  minorities

For the upliftment of minorities, following schemes have been started for the minorities:-

1 . USTAAD

  • Announced in 2014
  • For skilling minority artisans
  • Scheme specially focusses on arts like Kashmiri embroidery, Bengali jardosi, Sikh phulkari embroidery, Buddhist thangka paintings etc.

2. Nai Manzil

  • Was announced in Budget 2014 
  • Skilling Madrassa passouts to join main-stream (computer, english etc)

3. Udaan

  • Skilling J&K youth by Ministry of Home Affairs and National Skills Development Council.

4. Sikho aur Kamao

  • By Ministry of Minority Affairs
  • Person belonging to Minority Community can get computer knowledge , tailoring skill etc from Private Institution and Government to reimburse that institution

5. Nai Roshini Yojana

  • By Ministry of Minority Affairs
  • For generating Leadership among Minority Women

6. Higher Education

Ministry of Minority Affairs is running following Schemes

  • Maulana Azad National Fellowship for M.Phil and PhD( MANAF)
  • Padho Pardesh : Subsidised Loan for foreign Education 

7. Garib Nawaz Skill Development Centres

  • Skill Development Centres will be established in 100 districts
  • Employment-oriented skill development courses  of  short term (2 to 6 months) in fields such as mobile and laptop repairing, security housekeeping training, etc will be given to minority students

8. Jiyo Parsi

  • For Parsi Community
  • Need of the Scheme: Population of Parsi community in India declined by 50% in last 60 years.
  • Objective of Scheme: To target an increase in the Total Fertility Rate of the Parsi community

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