This article deals with ‘Graphene.’ This is part of our series on ‘Science and Technology’ which is important pillar of GS-3 syllabus . For more articles , you can click here

What is Graphene?

  • Graphene is form of carbon consisting of planar sheets (2D structure) which are one atom thick, with the atoms arranged in a honeycomb-shaped lattice.

Properties of Graphene

  • Heat conductivity is 10 times better than Copper
  • 200 times stronger than steel
  • 1000 times electrical conductivity than Copper wire
  • Highly flexible and can flex 20% without damage.
  • Transparency is 97% (hence, can be used to make flexible & unbreakable screens)
  • High absorption capacity of Electromagnetic Waves
  • Has Anti-Bacterial Properties and Graphene Oxide can kill bacteria.
  • It is bio-compatible ( ie can hook up with biological cells) 


  • Making Flexible Screens .
  • Thermal management applications .
  • Solar cells of high efficiency
  • To Recreate Bones  as they mimic the environment of the bone. 
  • Desalination  : Graphene can be used in as sheet in process of reverse osmosis. Energy used in reverse osmosis when Graphene is used is 45% less than ordinary process & process will be twice as fast  (Note that cost of energy is the most expensive component in whole process)

But issue with graphene is , it is very difficult to make . Presently, large scale studies and experiments are going on to devise a method to make Graphene at large scale at cheap price and out of laboratory conditions.

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