Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence

This article deals with ‘Artificial Intelligence .’ This is part of our series on ‘Science and Technology’ which is important pillar of GS-3 syllabus . For more articles , you can click here

What is Artificial Intelligence?

  • Artificial intelligence is the branch of computer science concerned with making computers behave like humans
  • It is concerned with
    • Learning from experience
    • Recognising images
    • SolveComplex Problems
    • Understand Human Language
    • Create perspectives
Artificial Intelligence

Side Topic : Machine Learning and Deep Learning

  • Machine Learning, a term coined by Artur Samuel in 1959, based on the idea that systems can learn from data, identify patterns and make decisions with minimal human intervention.
  • Deep Learning is a technique for implementing Machine Learning. It is inspired by the structure and function of the brain called artificial neural networks.


  • Driverless Cars 
  • Games playing:  AI intelligent games learn from their mistakes and are not monotonous.
  • Expert systems : programming computers to make decisions in real-life situations
  • Natural language : programming computers to understand natural human languages.  
  • Robotics : programming computers to see and hear and react to other sensory stimuli (this is what we want to achieve ultimately)

Some problems 

  • The problem of creating machines smarter than humans but lacking the ethical-moral impulses like  compassion 
  • Possibility of machines trying to dominate humans eg Terminator & I-Robot type of situation
  • Job Loss : Much of India’s advanced IT services industry might get replaced by AI
  • High levels of inequality : Society will have high levels of inequality because there will be jobs for high skilled persons only. Low skill jobs will be taken up by AI Machines
  • Ensuring data security, protection, privacy, and ethical use
  • Rigorous auditing to ensure non-contamination by human biases & prejudices

But new avenues too

  • Will create new jobs in high end technology
  • Many uses in Governance and public delivery
    • Security : Any terrorist on wanted list can be recognised by AI Computer by stream of videos coming from CCTVs
    • Analysis of Schemes and suggestions for better results 
  • Personal Assistants : Companies like Google, Amazon(Alexa) etc are coming with personal assistants . They work on AI. Hence, now everybody can have personal assistant for free
  • Better Logistics : Uber, Google Maps suggesting best way etc use AI for logistic management. 
  • Use for specially abled people

Indian Govt and AI

  • 2018: Defence ministry set up a task for on AI for national security under  N Chandrashekharan  of Tata Sons.
  • 2018-Budget  gave ₹100 crore to Department of Science & Technology for a Mission on cyber physical systems.
  • 2018 : NITI Ayog working on National Artificial Intelligence Mission (N-AIM).
  • 2019-Interim-Budget announced a National Programme & Centre & webportal on ‘Artificial Intelligence‘. 
  • Samarth Udyog Bharat 4.0 by Ministry of Heavy Industries to make manufacturing industry ready for Industry 4.0  by 2025.
  • NITI Aayog  paper highlights the potential for India to become an AI ‘garage’, or solutions provider of the world.

What India can learn from other countries?

  • US, the global leader in AI  has AI sector  driven by the private sector.
  • China has ambition of becoming world leader in AI by 2030. The top 9 universities of China have received government funding to establish AI schools.

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