Jute Industry (in India and World)
This article deals with the ‘ Jute Industry (in India and World) .’ This is part of our series on ‘Geography’, which is an important pillar of the GS-1 syllabus. For more articles, you can click here.
India is the major producer of jute, along with Bangladesh. China and Pakistan are other notable producers.
- Bangladesh: Bangladesh is the world’s largest producer of jute. The jute industry is a vital sector of their economy, employing millions.
- West Bengal: The majority of India’s jute mills are concentrated in West Bengal
- Andhra Pradesh: Andhra Pradesh also has a significant jute industry.
- China: China also has a notable jute industry, with mills in cities like Nantong and Qingdao.
- Pakistan: Pakistan has a smaller but significant jute industry, mainly centred around cities like Karachi and Lahore.
Jute Industry is mostly located in India & in India concentrated in West Bengal. WHY?
- Raw material: The majority of jute is cultivated in West Bengal. The favourable climate and soil conditions in this region are ideal for jute cultivation.
- Energy: Proximity to coal mines in Raniganj and Jharia provides a stable energy source for jute processing.
- Water: Jute processing requires substantial amounts of water. The Hooghly River (a distributary of the Ganges) in West Bengal ensures a reliable and abundant water supply for the jute mills.
- Cheap Labour: West Bengal, along with states like Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, provides a large pool of skilled and unskilled labour at relatively low wages.
- Capital: Kolkata, the capital of West Bengal, had well-established banking and financial facilities during the British colonial period.
Problems faced by Jute Industry
- Geographical Disadvantages: After partition, jute mills remained in India while the prime jute-producing regions ended up in Bangladesh.
- Intense Competition from Bangladesh: Bangladesh adopted modern technology in jute production, thus reducing production costs and making their products more competitive in the global market.
- Labour Union Problems: Frequent strikes and disputes in jute mills hindered regular operations, affecting overall productivity.
- Competition from Synthetic Packing: The growing usage of synthetic materials for packaging has decreased the demand for jute products.
- Lack of Marketing Strategy for Eco-Friendly Appeal: There are insufficient efforts in promoting jute as an eco-friendly and biodegradable material in international markets.