Jute Industry (in India and World)

Jute Industry (in India and World)

This article deals with the  Jute Industry (in India and World) .’ This is part of our series on ‘Geography’, which is an important pillar of the GS-1 syllabus. For more articles, you can click here.

Jute Industry

Jute Industry (in India and World)

India is the major producer of jute, along with Bangladesh. China and Pakistan are other notable producers.

  • Bangladesh: Bangladesh is the world’s largest producer of jute. The jute industry is a vital sector of their economy, employing millions.
  • India:
    • West Bengal: The majority of India’s jute mills are concentrated in West Bengal 
    • Andhra Pradesh: Andhra Pradesh also has a significant jute industry.
  • China: China also has a notable jute industry, with mills in cities like Nantong and Qingdao.
  • Pakistan: Pakistan has a smaller but significant jute industry, mainly centred around cities like Karachi and Lahore.

Jute Industry is mostly located in India & in India concentrated in West Bengal. WHY?

  • Raw material: The majority of jute is cultivated in West Bengal. The favourable climate and soil conditions in this region are ideal for jute cultivation.
  • Energy: Proximity to coal mines in Raniganj and Jharia provides a stable energy source for jute processing.
  • Water: Jute processing requires substantial amounts of water. The Hooghly River (a distributary of the Ganges) in West Bengal ensures a reliable and abundant water supply for the jute mills.
  • Cheap Labour: West Bengal, along with states like Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, provides a large pool of skilled and unskilled labour at relatively low wages.
  • Capital: Kolkata, the capital of West Bengal, had well-established banking and financial facilities during the British colonial period. 

Problems faced by Jute Industry

  • Geographical Disadvantages: After partition, jute mills remained in India while the prime jute-producing regions ended up in Bangladesh.
  • Intense Competition from Bangladesh: Bangladesh adopted modern technology in jute production, thus reducing production costs and making their products more competitive in the global market.
  • Labour Union Problems: Frequent strikes and disputes in jute mills hindered regular operations, affecting overall productivity.
  • Competition from Synthetic Packing: The growing usage of synthetic materials for packaging has decreased the demand for jute products.
  • Lack of Marketing Strategy for Eco-Friendly Appeal: There are insufficient efforts in promoting jute as an eco-friendly and biodegradable material in international markets.

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