Sugar Industry (in India and World)

Sugar Industry in India

This article deals with the ‘Sugar Industry (in India and World).’ This is part of our series on ‘Geography’, which is an important pillar of the GS-1 syllabus. For more articles, you can click here.


India is the world’s second-largest sugarcane producer, and sugarcane stands as its most crucial cash crop. In addition to yielding sugar, jaggery, and khandsari, it furnishes molasses for the alcoholic beverage sector and bagasse for the paper manufacturing industry.

Locational factors

1. Raw material

  • The sucrose content in sugarcane starts to decrease as time passes after harvesting, making it imperative for the sugar to be extracted within 24 hours to achieve better recovery. As a result, the ideal location for sugar mills would be close to the sugarcane fields to minimize transportation time and maximize sucrose content preservation.

2. Weight loss

  • The weight loss of sugarcane during processing is significant, with sugar accounting for around 10% of the total bulky sugarcane. This high weight loss further underscores the importance of situating sugar mills near the source of raw material, as it reduces transportation costs and logistical challenges associated with moving large quantities of sugarcane over long distances.

Sugar Mill & Sugar Refinery : 2 Separate Location Principles

Sugar Industry (in India and World)

Sugar Mill

The core unit of the Sugar Industry is the sugar mill, a facility where sugarcane undergoes a series of processes to yield various forms of sugar products.

Input Sugarcane
Process Sugar juice + boiling =brown sugar
output Raw Coarse Brown Sugar, Bagasse and Molasses
Location Principle Regarding the location of sugar mills, they are strategically placed in close proximity to sugar-farming areas to minimize the transportation costs of raw sugarcane. This proximity ensures freshly harvested sugarcane can be quickly transported to the mill for processing, minimizing transportation time and maximizing sucrose content preservation. E.g. in Uttar Pradesh, Maharahstra, South Gujarat.

Sugar Refinery

Sugar Refinery transforms the raw coarse brown sugar obtained from sugar mills into refined sugars of various grades, including brown and white sugars.

Input Raw Coarse Brown Sugar (from sugar mill)
Process Raw Sugar is refined
output Brown and White sugars of various grades.
Location Principle Sugar refineries are strategically located near their target markets. By situating the refineries close to major urban centres or food processing industries, the sugar industry can effectively supply its products to various sectors of the economy, including food and beverage production, confectionery, and other consumer goods.

Cuba is the Sugar Bowl of the world. WHY?

Cuba is the Sugar Bowl of the world. WHY?

The following factors contribute to Cuba’s remarkable success in the sugar industry.


  • Cuba’s high temperatures and the prevalence of the northeast trade winds create an ideal environment for sugarcane cultivation.  


  • The fertile calcareous soil in Cuba allows sugarcane crops to thrive and ensures that multiple harvests can be obtained within a year.


  • The influx of American capital following the Spanish-American War in the late 19th century facilitated modernization, technological advancements, and increased efficiency in sugar production.  


  • Cuba has a strategic geographic location due to its proximity to the United States and its relatively short distance from northwest Europe.  


  • Slave labour was used to cultivate sugarcane, resulting in significant production.

Government policy

  • Before the rise of Fidel Castro, the main market for Cuba’s sugar exports was the United States. 
  • After the Cuban Revolution, the focus shifted towards other markets, such as the Soviet Union, and the country experimented with cooperative and collective models of sugar production.

USA is a major producer of sugar?

Sugar production is primarily concentrated in two distinct regions: Louisiana and Hawaii.


  • Subtropical climate is conducive to sugarcane cultivation. 
  • Earlier, cheap labour was available. Later, they invested in automated harvesting machines and precision agriculture techniques. 


  • Hawaii’s islands’ volcanic soils are suitable for sugarcane cultivation.
  • Historically, Hawaii’s sugar industry relied heavily on immigrant labour, including Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, and Portuguese workers. Later, they invested in Mechanized methods like combine harvesters and automated irrigation systems. 

Other Producers: Mauritius and Fiji

Soil and Climate

  • Soil is favourable for sugarcane cultivation
  • Wet Climate favours sugarcane plantations.


  • Indentured labourers played a crucial role in establishing and sustaining the sugar industry in these island nations.  

Sugar Industry in India

  • In India, the sugar industry holds significant prominence as it leads the world in the production of both sugarcane and cane sugar. 
  • Besides, khandasari and gur or jaggery are also prepared from sugarcane. 
  • This industry directly employs 4 lakh persons.
  • Development of the industry on modern lines dates back to 1903 when a sugar mill was started in Bihar. Subsequently, sugar mills were started in other parts of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. In 1950-51, 139 factories were in operation. The number of sugar factories rose to 662 in 2010-11.

Concentration of Sugar Mills in India

The sugar industry in India is geographically diverse, with various regions contributing significantly to its production. 


  • Maharashtra stands out as the largest sugar producer, accounting for over one-third of the country’s total output. 
  • The sugar industry in Maharashtra is concentrated in the following regions 
    1. Western Maharashtra’s river valleys
    2. Sangli, Solapur and Satara
    3. Ahmadnagar, Pune and Nasik

Uttar Pradesh

  • Uttar Pradesh is the second-largest sugar producer in India. 
  • The sugar industry in Maharashtra is concentrated in the following regions 
    1. Western UP and Terai region
    2. Meerut, Moradabad and Muzaffarnagar
    3. Sitapur, Gorakhpur and Saharanpur

Tamil Nadu

  • Tamil Nadu’s presence in the sugar industry is notable, with Coimbatore and Tiruchirapalli as key centres of production.


  • In Karnataka, Chitradurga and Shimoga are instrumental in contributing to the state’s sugar output. 

Andhra Pradesh

  • Andhra Pradesh’s sugar industry is prominent around cities like Hyderabad and Nizamabad.

Sugar Mills are concentrated in Maharashtra?

The concentration of sugar mills in Maharashtra, India, can be attributed to a combination of various favourable factors 

  1. Favourable Climate 
    • The warm climate supports better yield, and Maharashtra benefits from the abundant sunlight and warmth. 
    • The proximity to the ocean further enhances the sugarcane growth, as the minimal temperature fluctuations between day and night increase sugar yield and sugar content within the cane.
  2. Soil: Lava soil in the region enhances fertility and water retention capabilities. This soil characteristic proves beneficial for sugarcane growth.
  3. Energy: Mills use bagasse as fuel ( and is not a deciding factor in the case of the Sugar industry)
  4. Transport: The transport infrastructure, specifically the presence of Mumbai Port, plays a crucial role in facilitating exports.
  5. Labour: The transport infrastructure, specifically the presence of Mumbai Port, plays a crucial role in facilitating exports.

Sugar Mills are concentrated in UP?

The sugar industry in India has a significant concentration of sugar mills in the state of Uttar Pradesh (UP). Various factors have influenced this geographical concentration. 

  1. Soil Composition: The presence of potash and lime in the soil of Uttar Pradesh provides a favourable environment for sugarcane growth. 
  2. Abundant Water Resources: The state of Uttar Pradesh is blessed with major rivers like the Ganga and Yamuna, along with their numerous tributaries. 
  3. Energy Efficiency: Sugar mills in Uttar Pradesh have adopted an eco-friendly approach by utilizing bagasse, a by-product of sugarcane processing, as a renewable energy source.
  4. Well-Connected Transportation Network: The dense road network in Uttar Pradesh and its flat terrain facilitate easy sugarcane transportation from farms to mills.
  5.  Seasonal and Migratory Labour: The availability of seasonal and migratory labour in Uttar Pradesh helps maintain lower production costs. 
  6. Large Domestic Market: With its substantial population, Uttar Pradesh boasts a large domestic market that exhibits a consistent demand for various sugar products like gur, khandsari, and sugar itself. 
  7. Government Intervention: Regulatory measures, subsidies, and price support mechanisms impact the industry’s economic dynamics and stability

Sugar Industry: North vs South

When comparing the sugar industries in North and South India, it’s intriguing to note that despite the favourable climatic conditions for sugarcane growth in the southern regions due to the absence of extreme heat, frost, and the moderating influence of the sea, the northern part of the country has a greater concentration of sugar industry. This phenomenon can be attributed to historical, economic, and agricultural factors.

  1. Historical Factors: During the British colonial period, the northern regions of India were known for cultivating indigo, a plant used for producing natural dyes. However, with the advent of synthetic dyes, the demand for natural indigo diminished, leading many farmers in the North to seek alternative crops. Sugarcane emerged as a viable substitute due to its potential for sugar production. 
  2. Other Options Available: Despite the climatic advantages in the South, farmers in those regions have better options for cultivating cash crops. Cash crops like cotton, tobacco, and coconut are well-suited to the southern climate and soil conditions.
  3. In the North, the historical presence of sugar mills and the availability of infrastructure might have facilitated the growth of the sugar industry.

Problems Faced by the Sugar Industry in India 

  • Problem with State Advised Price (SAP): Due to political considerations, SAP is kept high, making sugarcane the most attractive crop to grow (due to this, it is grown even in drought-prone regions like Maharashtra). As a result, sugar mills are forced to pay high prices, culminating in high arrears to farmers. 
  • Low Yield of Sugarcane: Per hectare, sugarcane productivity is low in India compared to global standards. For instance, productivity in India is 64.5 tons/hectare compared to Java – 90 tons/hectare & Hawaii – 120 tons/hectare.
  • Mismatch between Sugar and sugarcane prices: The government tries to keep sugar prices low (to get the votes of consumers) but sugarcane prices high (to get the votes of farmers). As a result, sugar mills suffer losses. 
  • Over-Regulation
    • The sugar industry is an over-regulated industry. Every sugar mill is allocated a command area, and the mill is bound to purchase sugarcane grown in that area. Sugarcane farmers can sell their sugarcane only in designated mills. 
    • State governments fix the quotas for different end uses of molasses and restrict their movement outside the state. 
    • Some states have even restricted the selling of power generated from bagasse outside the state. 
  • Old and obsolete machinery: Most of the machinery used in Indian mills, particularly in UP and Bihar, is old and obsolete, being 50-60 years old 

Copper Industry in India and World

Copper Industry in India and World

This article deals with the ‘Copper Industry in India and World.’ This is part of our series on ‘Geography’, which is an important pillar of the GS-1 syllabus. For more articles, you can click here.


  • Copper is essential for the electric industry.
  • Due to the increase in demand,  new mining & smelting techniques have developed.

Uses of Copper

Copper Industry in India and World

Stages of Copper Refining

  • First stage, i.e. Concentration: In this process, we get blister copper using the froth floatation method, which is 2.5% of the original quantity. Hence, concentration is done near the mine.
  • Second Stage: Blister Copper is 99% pure but can’t be used as such. Refining of Blister Copper is done using electrolysis. In this process, weight loss is just 1%. Hence, electricity is the deciding factor in this stage. 

Location Factors of Copper Industry

  1. Availability of Copper Deposits:  Regions with abundant copper ore reserves have a competitive advantage. For example, 
    • Malanjkhand copper deposit in Madhya Pradesh is one of India’s largest copper deposits, leading to the establishment of the Malanjkhand Copper Project.
    • Khetri Copper Complex in Rajasthan is strategically located near the Khetri mines, a major copper ore source.
  2. Power Supply: Reliable and affordable power supply is essential for copper smelting and refining processes. Areas with access to sufficient electricity, preferably with a stable grid, are preferred. 
  3. Infrastructure and Transportation: Adequate infrastructure, including transportation networks, is crucial for the copper industry. The Tuticorin Port in Tamil Nadu is an important hub for copper imports and exports, providing a favourable location for copper-related industries in the region.
  4. Skilled Labor Force: A skilled labour force with expertise in mining, metallurgy, engineering, and related fields is crucial for the copper industry.
  5. Government Policies and Incentives: Favorable government policies, like tax incentives, subsidies etc., can attract copper industries to specific locations.
  6. Market Access: Proximity to domestic and international markets is important for copper industries. 

Global Copper Industry

1. Chile

  • Chile is the world’s largest copper producer, accounting for a significant portion of the global copper supply. The country’s vast copper deposits are mainly located in the Atacama Desert.

 2. Zaire and Zambia

  • Zaire and Zambia, both African nations, possessed significant copper ore reserves and established refineries to process the raw material into valuable copper products. In an effort to exert more control over their natural resources and economic sectors, the governments of Zaire and Zambia chose to nationalize these refineries. 
  • However, the nationalization of the copper refineries did not go as planned, and the refineries began to face financial struggles, turning into loss-making ventures due to mismanagement, lack of expertise, and changing market dynamics.

3. China

  • China is a significant player in both copper production and consumption. Major copper-producing provinces in China include Jiangxi, Inner Mongolia, and Xinjiang.

4. Australia

  • Australia has substantial copper resources and availability of cheap electricity.

5. Indonesia

  • Indonesia is a major copper producer, with its Grasberg mine being one of the world’s largest copper and gold mines.

6. USA

  • The Copper industry was concentrated around the states of Utah, Montana, and Arizona (UMA). These states are known for their historical significance in copper mining and refining. 
  • However, the landscape of the industry in the UMA region started to shift due to factors such as rising costs of electricity, legal requirements to curb sulfur dioxide emissions necessitating expensive upgrades and Foreign competitors offering increased competition.

7. Canada

  • Canada has copper production primarily in provinces such as British Columbia and Ontario.

8. Russia

  • Russia’s copper operations are concentrated in regions like the Ural Mountains and Siberia.

9. Mexico

  • Mexico’s copper production is centred in areas like Sonora and Zacatecas.

Main Copper producing units in India

Da ej 

1. Khetri, Rajasthan

  •  Khetri, in the Jhunjhunu district of Rajasthan, is one of India’s largest copper mining and smelting complexes. 
  • It is operated by Hindustan Copper Limited (HCL) and houses one of the oldest copper mines in the country.

2. Korba, Chattisgarh

  • Korba unit is operated by BALCO.
  • It gets its ore from Amarkantak and electricity from Korba thermal plant.

3. Dahej, Gujarat

  • HINDALCO (a company of the Aditya Birla Group) has its Copper Division in Dahej (in Bharuch district of Gujarat).

4. Balaghat, Madhya Pradesh

  • The Malanjkhand Copper Project, located in Balaghat, is one of the largest open-pit copper mines in India. 
  • It is operated by Hindustan Copper Limited.

5. Bhubaneswar, Odisha

  • Bhubaneswar, the capital city of Odisha, is home to the Indian Copper Complex (ICC) smelter and refinery operated by Hindustan Copper Limited.  

6. Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu

  • Tuticorin in Tamil Nadu houses Sterlite Copper Smelter, which is one of the largest copper smelters in India. 
  • However, the smelter has been non-operational since 2018 due to environmental concerns.

Aluminium Industry in India and World

Aluminium Industry in India and World

This article deals with the ‘Aluminium Industry in India and World.’ This is part of our series on ‘Geography’, which is an important pillar of the GS-1 syllabus. For more articles, you can click here.


Aluminium is abundant in the earth’s crust, but a significant concentration in one place is needed for mining. 

Useful Properties of Aluminium

The following properties of Aluminium make it a valuable metal.

  1. Elasticity: Aluminium exhibits impressive elasticity, allowing it to be bent and deformed without easily breaking. This property is vital in applications where materials must withstand varying stresses and strains.
  2. Conductivity of Electricity and Heat: Aluminium boasts excellent electrical conductivity, allowing it to transmit electric current efficiently. Hence, it is preferred for heat sinks, radiators, and cookware.
  3. Modulability: Aluminium can be easily modulated into a wide range of shapes. 
  4. Corrosion Resistance: Upon exposure to air, Aluminium forms a thin oxide layer that protects it from further oxidation, extending its lifespan and reducing maintenance requirements.
  5. Recyclability: Aluminium’s recyclability is noteworthy, as it can be recycled repeatedly without losing its fundamental properties. 
  6. Lightweight: The low density of Aluminium contributes to its lightweight nature, making it an ideal choice for applications where weight reduction is crucial, such as in the aerospace and automotive industries.
  7. Non-Toxicity: Aluminium is considered safe for various applications due to its non-toxic nature, making it suitable for contact with food and beverages. This characteristic has led to its prevalent use in food packaging and kitchen utensils.

Process of obtaining Aluminium

Aluminium Industry in India and World

Location Factors Influencing Aluminium Industry

Manufacturing one metric ton of Aluminium requires around 6 metric tonnes of Bauxite and power consumption of 18,573 kilowatt-hours of electricity.

  • Bauxite Availability: The availability of Bauxite, the primary raw material for producing Aluminium, plays a crucial role in determining the location of Aluminium industries. Countries like Guinea, Australia, and Brazil, which possess significant bauxite reserves, enjoy a competitive edge in Aluminium production. They can obtain Bauxite at a lower cost compared to countries that need to import it, giving them an advantage in the Aluminium manufacturing sector.
  • Cheap Electricity: Alumina to Aluminium conversion is done using electrolysis. Aluminium smelters require large amounts of energy, often supplied by hydroelectric power plants near the smelter. Therefore, Aluminium plants are usually located near water sources and dams that can generate electricity.

Global Aluminium Industry

The availability of cheap electricity has influenced the location of the Aluminium industry. This factor has played a significant role in determining the locations of main Aluminium refining centres worldwide.

During the 1970s, countries like Japan, the USA, and Western Europe were prominent players in the Aluminium industry. However, as the cost of electricity increased in these areas, they faced challenges in maintaining their competitive edge. This shift in competitiveness prompted the relocation of Aluminium production facilities to other regions that offered more cost-effective electricity options.

Presently, major Aluminium refining countries include Australia, Canada, Brazil, China, and Russia. These countries have been able to maintain their competitiveness due to their relatively low electricity costs.

Main Producers Include

1. Canada and Norway

  • Canada and Norway are prime examples of countries that lack domestic bauxite resources but have a strong Aluminium industry presence. 
  • The availability of cheap electricity, primarily from hydroelectric resources, has enabled these nations to attract Aluminium refining companies. 

2. Japan

  • Japan, once a leader in Aluminium production, faced a decline due to rising electricity prices. Consequently, many companies shifted their operations to countries like Australia and Indonesia, which offer abundant bauxite reserves and comparatively lower electricity costs.

3. Australia

Australia stands out due to its significant deposits of bauxite and diverse electricity generation sources.

  • Queensland & Victoria: In regions like Queensland and Victoria, coal-based thermal power plants contribute to the availability of cheap electricity
  • Tasmania: Tasmania benefits from its ample hydroelectric resources.

4. USA

The United States, with its vast geography, has seen Aluminium production centres in various regions. 

  • Eastern USA: The eastern part of the USA, encompassing states like Arkansas, Georgia, and Alabama, has historically been associated with Aluminium production. 
  • Western USA: Western states like Arizona, Utah, and New Mexico have also hosted Aluminium refineries. 

However, environmental considerations and taxes have impacted the growth of the Aluminium industry in the USA.

5. Iceland

  • Iceland has emerged as an attractive destination for Aluminium companies due to its abundant supply of low-cost and renewable energy sources. The country’s geothermal and hydroelectric energy has lured Aluminium manufacturers seeking energy-efficient and sustainable operations.

Main Aluminium producing units in India

The Aluminium smelting sector holds the second most significant position in India’s metallurgical landscape, trailing only behind the iron and steel industry. Its contribution is pivotal to the comprehensive growth of the nation’s industrial sector.

Aluminium producing units in India

Aluminium Industry in India

Both private and public sector enterprises are present in Aluminium production

1. Private Sector


HINDALCO, owned by the Aditya Birla Group, is a prominent player in the Indian Aluminium industry. The company operates two major plants in Renukoot (Uttar Pradesh) and Hirakud (Odisha).

a. Renukoot Plant, Uttar Pradesh (UP) 

Bauxite Lohardaga-Pakhar region in Jharkhand
Electricity Rihand Dam on the Rihand River
Skilled Labour Comprehensive residential township and medical facilities are present to ensure a conducive working environment.
Transportation Well connected via rail and road

b. Hirakud Plant, Odisha 

Bauxite Kalahandi-Koraput region in Odisha
Electricity Captive coal blocks at Talabira
Transportation Well connected via rail and road

2. Public Sector Undertakings (PSUs)

1. National Aluminium Company (NALCO)

  • NALCO is a leading PSU in the Indian aluminium industry, with its primary facility located in Koraput, Odisha.
  • The company capitalizes on the abundant bauxite reserves in Odisha.
  • NALCO’s operations are supported by a coal-based captive power plant, ensuring a steady energy supply for its Aluminium production processes.

2. Madras Aluminium Company (MALCO)

  • MALCO is situated in Salem, Tamil Nadu.  
  • The Shevaroy Hills in Tamil Nadu provide the necessary Bauxite.  
  • The company utilizes hydroelectricity from the Mettur Dam to power its Aluminium production operations.

3. Bharat Aluminium Company (BALCO )

  • BALCO, located in Korba, Chhattisgarh. 
  • The Korba region is rich in Aluminium reserves.
  • BALCO relies on a coal-based captive power plant for its energy needs.

4. Others

  • Indian Aluminium Company (INDAL): In Alupuram, Kerala

Lithium (UPSC Notes India)

Lithium (UPSC Notes India)

This article deals with ‘Lithium (UPSC Notes India).’ This is part of our series on ‘Geography’, which is an important pillar of the GS-1 syllabus. For more articles, you can click here.


  • Lithium is the lightest solid metal. 
  • It is mainly produced from hard rock or brine mines.
  • Major Lithium Ores include
    1. Spodumene: Primary source of Lithium which contains high concentrations of Lithium (between 3% to 7.6%)
    2. Petalite: Another important Lithium ore.
Lithium Reserves - Properties and Applications

Use of Lithium

Lithium Batteries

  • Lithium Batteries or Lithium-ion Batteries is the primary use of Lithium due to their use in electric vehicles, smartphones, tablets, laptops etc. Lithium-ion batteries are popular as they have high energy density, long lifespan, and lightweight nature.
Lithium (UPSC Notes India)

Other Minor Uses

  • Heat-resistant glass and ceramics
  • Lithium Grease Lubricants: These can withstand high temperatures
  • Flux additives for iron, steel and aluminium production
  • Optics
  • Thermonuclear Weapons
  • Coolant in Nuclear Processes: Lithium has the highest specific heat capacity of all the solids
  • Fuel for Rocket Propellants: Complex hydrides of Lithium such as Li[AlH4] 

Global Distribution

  • Australia: It is the world’s biggest supplier, which produces it from hard rock mines. 
  • Lithium Triangle: The Lithium Triangle consists of Lithium rich region in Argentina, Bolivia and Chile.
    1. Chile: It is the second-largest producer of Lithium. Salar de Atacama is very rich in Lithium.
    2. Argentina: It is found in the salt flats of Salinas Grandes and Hombre Muerto.
    3. Bolivia: It is found in the brine deposits of Salar de Uyuni.
  • China: China’s Tibet, Qinghai, and Sichuan are rich in Lithium.
  • Canada: In Canada, Quebec is rich in Lithium.
  • United States: Nevada, North Carolina, and California have Lithium deposits.
Lithium- Global Distribution

Indian Distribution of Lithium

  • In India, the first traces of Lithium were discovered in the ancient igneous rock of Karnataka’s Mandya district. 
  • Apart from that, Lithium reserves are also found in 
    1. Jammu and Kashmir
    2. Karnataka 
    3. Jharkhand
  • But currently, India imports all its lithium needs from other countries.

Steps taken by Indian Government

  • National Mission on Transformative Mobility: To encourage domestic Lithium-Ion Cell manufacturing and EV components. 
  • ISRO and BHEL Agreement: To develop low-cost lithium-ion batteries. 
  • India’s first lithium cell plant manufacturing facility will be launched in Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh. 
  • Strengthening relationship with Lithium Triangle Nations: India is focusing on ‘Lithium Triangle’ nations Argentina, Bolivia and Chile.

Cement Industry in India

Last Updated: June 2023 (Cement Industry in India)

Cement Industry in India

This article deals with the ‘Cement Industry in India.’ This is part of our series on ‘Geography’, which is an important pillar of the GS-1 syllabus. For more articles, you can click here.


Cement Industry in India

Raw Materials Required

Raw Materials required in the Cement industry are

  • Limestone: 60-65%
  • Silica: 20-25%
  • Alumina: 5-12%
  • Slag from Steel plant 
  • Slag from Fertiliser plant 
  • Sea Shells

Location Factors of the Cement Industry

Availability of Raw Materials

  • Limestone, clay, and gypsum are used in huge quantities in cement manufacturing. As a result, the cement industry is situated close to the raw resources. That’s why cement plants such as Ultratech Cement and Ambuja Cement are situated in Rajasthan (rich in limestone).

Infrastructure and Transportation

  • The cement thus produced needs to be transported to the market. As cement is a heavy and bulky material, a well-developed network of roads, railways or ports (for exports) is required. 

Power Availability

  • Cement manufacturing is an energy-intensive industry. Hence, the cement industry is located in regions with an adequate and cheap energy supply like coal, hydroelectricity, or renewable energy. 

Water Availability

  • An ample water supply is required to manufacture cement for processes such as cooling. Hence, cement plants are situated near water sources, like rivers or lakes.

Government Policies

  • Government policies and regulations can also influence the location of cement industries. Environmental regulations, tax benefits and subsidies can encourage or discourage the establishment of cement plants in that region.

Environmental Factors

  • Air Pollution Regulations can affect the location of the cement industry. Since Cement is a polluting industry, it is not situated in states with strict air pollution requirements. 

Geological Considerations

  • Geological factors, especially the quality and composition of limestone deposits, can influence the location decisions of cement plants. 

Major Cement Producers

Major Cement Producers

Major industrial houses in the Cement Industry in India include 

  • UltraTech Cement
  • ACC Limited (Headquartered in Mumbai)
  • Ambuja Cement (Mainly Gujarat based)
  • Shree Cement (Beawar (Rajasthan) based)
  • Ramco Cement (Chennai based)
  • Dalmia Bharat Cement (Tamil Nadu based)
  • JK Cement

New Opportunities for the Cement Industries 

  • The Ministry of Transport has decided to build concrete cement roads instead of traditional bitumen roads as cement roads are cost-effective & require less maintenance.
  • Rapid urbanization and infrastructure development have increased the demand for Cement in India.
  • Government programs like “Housing for All” have increased the cement demand in India.
  • India is exporting cement to its neighbouring countries like Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Bhutan, as well as to markets in the Middle East, Africa, and Southeast Asia.

Zero-Budget Natural Farming

Zero-Budget Natural Farming

This article deals with ‘Zero-Budget Natural Farming.’ This is part of our series on ‘Economics’, which is an important pillar of the GS-1 and GS-3 syllabus. For more articles, you can click here.


Zero-Budget Natural Farming (ZBNF) means 

  • Zero Budget, i.e. Zero Budget means Farming without spending money to purchase inputs (seeds, fertilizers etc.). It reduces the cost of agriculture.
  • Natural Farming, i.e. Farming without using chemicals. Natural inputs like biofertilizers, earthworms, cow dung etc., are used instead.

Renowned Indian agriculturist Subash Palekar developed this technique of Farming.

Zero-Budget Natural Farming

Why in the news?

  • It was first introduced in Karnataka. Later, Himachal and Andhra governments also started to promote it.
  • NITI Aayog is promoting ZBNF.
  • Budget 2019 was also announced to encourage ZBNF.

ZBNF consists of following

It is based on the basic premise that soil has all the necessary nutrients which could be made available through the intermediation of microorganisms. It consists of the following.

  1. Beejamurtha: Seeds treated with cow dung and urine.
  2. Jeevamurtha: Soil rejuvenated with cow dung and other local materials to increase microbes.
  3. Mulching: Use straws and other organic matter to retain soil moisture and build humus.
  4. Intercropping
  5. Rainwater harvesting

Benefits of Zero-Budget Natural Farming

  1. Environment friendly: Input costs are near zero as no fertilizers and pesticides are used.
  2. Higher Yields: Yields of various cash and food crops were higher when compared with chemical Farming. E.g., yields from ZBNF plots were found on average to be 11% higher for cotton than in non-ZBNF plots. 
  3. Increase farmer’s income as it is not input intensive.
  4. Cut toxins in food, and ZBNF products are suitable for health.
  5. Improve soils and prevent soil degradation.
  6. It leads to optimum use of water and reduces water consumption up to the tune of 85%.
  7. Climate Resilient: Model ZBNF farms were able to withstand drought and flooding, which are big concerns with regard to climate change.

Challenges of Zero-Budget Natural Farming

  • Low awareness among farmers about ZBNF
  • Experts have also cautioned against the large-scale adoption of ZBNF as it could lead to a large-scale decline in crop yield and hamper food security in the long run.
  • Due to different Agro-climatic conditions in different parts of India, ZBNF cant be practised in all parts of India.
  • There is a lack of scientific studies to prove the efficacy of ZBNF. 

Organic Farming in India

Organic Farming in India

Organic Farming in India

This article deals with ‘Organic Farming in India.’ This is part of our series on ‘Economics’, which is an important pillar of the GS-1 and GS-3 syllabus. For more articles, you can click here.


A system of farm design for agriculture production without synthetic external inputs such as chemicals, fertilizers, pesticides and synthetic hormones or genetically modified organisms

As of 2023, 45 lakh farmers are engaged in Organic Farming, and 60 l ha is under Organic Farming in India. Additionally, Sikkim was the first Indian state to become completely organic.

Need for Organic Farming in India

  1. More From Less: ‘Green Revolution’ is input-intensive and has reached a plateau with diminishing returns. Organic Farming is not input-intensive and fetches higher prices. Hence, it can help farmers increase the return rate on investments.
  2. Organic farming products are healthier and safer than non-organic farming products.     
  3. Organic Farming is more sustainable and helps maintain the soil’s good health
  4. With increasing disposable income and a sizeable middle class, there is a ready market for Organic Products, especially in metropolitan cities.
  5. Export Potential is high because of higher demand in Western countries.
  6. It has indirect benefits in the form of eco-tourism, protection of biodiversity etc.
  7. Climate Change Mitigation: Organic farming practices like organic manure usage, agroforestry, and soil conservation techniques help sequester carbon in the soil, contributing to climate change mitigation.

Challenges and Concerns 

  1. Productivity per field decreases: Sikkim used to be a surplus state wrt food production. Now it has to import from other states.
  2. Limited availability of Organic Inputs: Organic Farming requires specific inputs such as organic fertilizers, pesticides, and seeds. However, the availability and accessibility of these inputs are often limited.
  3. Organic Farming caters to a very small and particular class of market. There are logistic problems in delivering products to that market.
  4. Certification and Standards: Obtaining organic certification is a rigorous process and can be time-consuming and costly for small to medium Indian farmers.
  5. To start organic Farming, the existing field has to be left fallow for a minimum of 5-6 years to cleanse it of chemical fertilizers. It poses a burden on poor farmers. 
  6. The growing period of organic products is long, decreasing the avenues of multiple cropping. 
  7. The shelf life of organic products is low.
  8. Lack of awareness and education: Many farmers in India are unaware of organic farming practices and the benefits it offers.
  9. Climate Change Vulnerability: Climate change poses a significant threat to agriculture as increased weather variability, extreme weather events, and changing pest and disease patterns can impact organic crop production 

Case Study of Sri Lanka

  • The Sri Lankan Government was promoting Organic Farming with vigour due to the great demand for organic products (especially organic tea) in the Western markets. But this decreased the crop yield exponentially, leading to food shortage and inflation.
  • Hence, the Sri Lankan government has changed its stance and again started encouraging farmers to use fertilizers and pesticides so that their output returns to its previous normal.  

Case Study of Sri Lanka for Organic Farming

Government Programs to promote Organic Farming

  1. Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKVY): Form a group of 50 farmers in a cluster to start Organic Farming. Every beneficiary farmer is given ₹20,000 per ha for 3 years for practising Organic Farming.
  2. Bhartiya Prakritik Krishi Padhati (BPKP): Under the scheme, Rs. 12,200 per hectare is given to the farmer per 3 years if they don’t use any chemicals on their land.
  3. National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture: The scheme promotes Organic Farming and is part of the National Action Plan to Combat Climate Change. 
  4. FSSAI Regulation on Organic Farming, 2018: It has standardized the definition of Organic Farming, set the mandatory labelling requirements & has given a Voluntary Logo (Jaivik Bharat Logo) of Organic Food. 
  5. Large Area Certification Program (LAC): The Government of India’s initiative to provide certification to areas which are traditionally involved in doing organic Farming (such as Tribal belts, Hills, Deserts, Islands etc.)
  6. Agriculture Ministry has launched the ‘Jaivik Kheti Portal’ to connect farmers doing Organic Farming with buyers.
  7. In the north-eastern states, the Government has started ‘Mission Organic Value Chain Development for North Eastern Region’ to strengthen organic agriculture in the North East.

Owing to these steps, Sikkim has become the first state in India (and the world) to become fully organic. Other states, such as Tripura and Uttarakhand, are on the verge of becoming organic. Furthermore, MP has the largest area under organic Farming among all the states.

Ethical Governance in India

Last Updated: May 2023 (Ethical Governance in India)

Ethical Governance in India

This article deals with the topic titled ‘ Ethical Governance in India (UPSC Notes) .’ This is part of our series on ‘Ethics’. For more articles, you can click here.


Ethical Governance is a corruption-free, moral and people-centric government.

Ethical Governance in India

Philosophical Basis of Ethical Governance

People think that concept of Good Governance is modern. But they are wrong. Many times in past, scholars have conceptualized what constitutes good governance.


  • Kautilya, in his Arthashastra, wrote, “In the happiness of subjects lies the happiness of king and in the welfare of subjects lies the welfare of king. ” Hence, he has written about Citizen-Centric Government.  
  • Kautilya has also highlighted the corruption & given the concept of Kantakshodhana, i.e. king should purge those elements strictly. 

Gandhi’s Vision of Ramrajya

  • The vision of Ramrajya, or the ideal state, involves Governance based on Moral Principles like nonviolence, truth, and righteousness. 
  • Gandhi said that government which is not working in the people’s interest is morally corrupt. 
  • Swaraj, i.e. Self Rule, is one of the pillars of his Ramrajya or Good Governance. 


He has divided the government into two parts 

  • Perverted Government: Power is used in the interest of the ruling class
  • Legitimate Government: Power is used in the public interest 

8 Characters of Ethical Government

Rule of Law

  • Rule of Law involves governance based upon rules and regulations 
  • In modern times, these rules & regulations are codified in the country’s constitution and laws. 

People’s Participation

  • Real democracy doesn’t just mean voting to elect government but the participation of people in governance itself. 
  • The mechanism of people’s participation in contemporary times are
Conventional Tools Voting
Pressure Groups
New & Contemporary Panchayati Raj Institutions & Gram Sabha
Social Auditing
Citizen Charter
e-Governance (C2G)
Social Media (, online petitions)

Consensus Orientation

  • Consensus Orientation in governance involves seeking input from various individuals and groups affected by a decision or policy, aiming to reach a consensus that considers the diverse perspectives and interests involved.
  • Ethical Governance is opposite to the ‘Winner takes All’ approach. 

Equity and Inclusiveness

  • The distribution of resources should be based on the principle of equity so that different sections of society receive these resources based on their need
  • Inclusiveness involves including weaker sections in decision-making.

Effective and Efficient

  • Effective government achieves the targets in the stipulated time. 
  • An efficient government is one which delivers maximum with minimum resources 



  • The literal meaning of Transparency is openness 
  • Tools of Transparency include RTI, E-Governance etc.
  • Dealt exclusively in a separate article (CLICK HERE)


  • A responsive government is one which positively responds to people’s demands, needs and aspirations in a timely manner.

Impediments to Ethical Governance in India

The whole scene has to be seen in the context of 

  1. Corruption, Nepotism and Crony Capitalism 
  2. Misuse of power in personal interest
  3. Red Tapism: Undue delay in public service delivery because of complex procedures  
  4. Lack of Transparency 
  5. Weak Accountability 
  6. Lack of public participation in decision making
  7. Bureaucratic apathy, particularly towards weaker sections of society
  8. Status quo and elitist orientation of bureaucracy
  9. Politicization of Bureaucracy
  10. Criminalization of politics

How to Strengthen Ethical Governance

For this, we need to take various steps in various fields

1. Political Structure

  • Enforce expenditure limits on elections strictly 
  • Bring Political Parties under RTI
  • Remove excessive protection given to tainted politicians 

2. Statutory Structure

2nd Administrative Reforms Commission (ARC) has given various recommendations in this regard

  • Amend the Prevention of Corruption Act 
  • Integrity Pacts – When Government Organisation signs any contract with a Private organization, sign integrity pacts stating that if Private Organisation is found involved in any wrongdoing, the contract will cancel automatically. 

3. Institutional Structure

  • Strengthen and give more teeth to CVC, Lokpal, CBI etc.

4. Social Infrastructure

Take help of society in reducing corruption and increasing Ethical Governance

  • Give Civic Education in Schools.  
  • False Claims Act (USA): If you think there is wrongdoing in some organization, gather evidence & produce it before the court. If the fine is imposed on that organization, some portion of money from that fine will be given to the litigant
  • Social Audit: Social Audit is the audit through client or beneficiary groups or civil society groups (i.e. stakeholders) to ensure the social accountability of an organization.

Fossil Fuel Resources in India

Fossil Fuel Resources in India

This article deals with ‘Fossil Fuel Resources in India.’ This is part of our series on ‘Geography’, which is an important pillar of the GS-1 syllabus. For more articles, you can click here.

Fossil Fuel Resources in India

Categories of Energy Sources

  • Conventional: Conventional energy sources refer to the traditional methods of generating power that has been widely used for many years—E.g., Coal, Petroleum etc.
  • Non-Conventional: Non-conventional sources of energy are energy resources that are not derived from traditional fossil fuels—E.g. Solar, Wind etc.

1. Coal

Types of Coal

1. Peat

  • It has the highest percentage of moisture & gives more smoke.
  • Carbon content is 40% (lowest).
  • It represents the very first stage of coal formation. 

2. Lignite

  • It is also known as Brown Coal and is superior to Peat.
  • Under pressure & heat, with time, Peat converts to lignite.
  • Carbon content is 40-60%.
  • In India, it is found in Neyveli (Tamil Nadu) (largest deposit), Palana (Rajasthan), and Lakhimpur (Assam).

3. Bituminous

  • It is also known as Black Coal.  
  • It is dense, compact & black in colour.
  • Carbon content is 60-80%.
  • Almost 80% of Indian Coal is Bituminous. 
  • It is found in Jharkhand, Orissa, West Bengal & Madhya Pradesh.

4. Anthracite

  • It is known as Hard Coal.
  • When buried deep, all moisture gets expelled & Anthracite coal is formed.
  • Carbon content is 80-90%.
  • It has a short flame & is the most expensive of all.
  • In India, Anthracite coal is found only in Jammu and Kashmir (Kalakot).

Distribution of Coal in the World

1. China

  • China has the largest reserves in the world (12%).
  • Overwhelming concentrations are found around 
    • Hwang Ho river basin, particularly in Shansi
    • Manchurian coal fields 
    • Shantung Hupei fields

2. USA

  • The USA has the second largest reserves in the world.
  • Main coal regions
    • Appalachian Region
    • Arkansas Rocky Region
    • Illinois 
    • Indiana

3. Australia

  • Australia has the fourth largest coal reserves, but they are substantially unexploited.
  • Main regions
    1. Queensland
    2. Tasmania
    3. New South Wales
    4. Victoria

4. Russia

  • Though coal reserves decreased after disintegration but have substantial reserves.
  • Main coal regions
    1. Pechora coal basin
    2. Kuznetsk region
    3. Moscow-Tula region

5. Ukraine

  • A substantial amount of coal reserves are found in Donetsk Basin.

6. Germany

  • Germany is the largest coal producer in mainland Europe. 
  • Main coal regions
    1. Ruhr Valley
    2. Saxony 
    3. Saar Basin

7. South Africa

  • The main coal regions in South Africa include Transvaal, Cape Province, and New Castle.  

Indian Coal

  • India has the third largest coal reserves in the world, but coal is of medium quality.
  • India coal was not formed in the Carboniferous period. (Hence, it is not Anthracite)
  • Most of the Indian Coal was formed in the Gondwana period. Hence, approx. 80% of Indian coal is Bituminous and non-coking grade.
  • Since Indian Coal is of non-coking grade, it can’t be used as a reducing agent in metallurgical processes. Hence, coking coal is imported 
  • Indian coal has low sulphur but high moisture. Thus it produces more smoke.

Formation of Indian Coal

Coal formation spans millions of years, involving the accumulation and transformation of organic matter. Globally, the formation of coal can be traced back to Carboniferous Period. But in India, most of the coal is from the Gondwana period. Coal formation begins with the accumulation of plant material in swamps and marshes to form peat. As more layers of plant material accumulated, the weight of the overlying sediment and the pressure from the Earth’s crust compressed the peat, gradually transforming it into coal, in the process known as coalification.

In India, Coal occurs in the rock sequences of two geological ages, i.e. Gondwana and Tertiary deposits.

1. Gondwana Coal

  • It was formed 570-275 million years ago (due to in Damodar-Mahanadi Rift) 
  • Most of the coal reserves in India consist of Gondwana coal.
  • Gondwana coal is of Bituminous type.

2. Tertiary Coal

  • Tertiary coal belongs to the Oligocene period (15 to 60 million years ago).
  • 2% of coal reserves in India is of Tertiary coal
  • Tertiary coal has low carbon content, in the range of 40-60%.
  • The largest deposit of Tertiary coal is found in Neyveli in Tamil Nadu.

Indian Distribution

Coal distribution in India

1. Bituminous Coal

Jharkhand Damodar Valley (Bokaro, Dhanbad, Jharia, Giridih and Daltonganj)
Odisha Mahanadi Basin and Talcher Valley
West Bengal Extension of Damodar Valley in Raniganj and Barakar formations
Chhatisgarh Narmada and Son Rift Valley
Madhya Pradesh Chindwara and Jhilmil
Andhra Pradesh Singreni and Kotagudam Coal Field
Maharashtra Nagpur and Kampti Coal Field

2. Lignite Coal

Tamil Nadu Neyvelli
Rajasthan Palana
Gujarat Umarsar

3. Anthracite Coal

Only found in one place

Jammu and Kashmir Kalakot

Problems of Indian Coal 

  • India doesn’t has high-grade coking coal. Hence, India depends on imports to meet domestic requirements.
  • Regulatory challenges: A stricter regulatory framework for land acquisition, resettlement and rehabilitation, and environment management leads to a higher cost of compliance for access and extraction of coal.
  • Good & low-grade coal are found together in Indian mines. Mining companies do selective mining & extract good coal, leaving bad coal behind. Selective mining is wasteful.
  • India does open-cast mining—in contrast to underground mining worldwide. The open cast is cheaper but is associated with high pollution.
  • Deep mining techniques used in India are primitive, leading to high causalities.
  • Poor connectivity from coal mines to consumer locations via railways leads to a mismatch of demand and supply.
  • Mining is primarily done by PSUs (Coal India). Their efficiency is low.  
  • The poor financial state of DISCOMs: This has led to a financial challenge in the overall power sector. Several states, including Jharkhand and Maharashtra, have large outstanding dues to coal companies.

2. Petroleum

Petroleum is obtained from sedimentary rocks of Marine origin of the Tertiary period. 

Theory of Origin

  • The origin of Petroleum & Natural gas is considered to be organic. Marine Living Organisms (like fish and microscopic plants and animals) got buried under accumulated sediments of crude mud, silt & sand and underwent a chemical change to form crude oil and natural gas due to high pressure & heat after millions of years. It is the reason why oil is found in many seabed. 
  • The point to note is that where ever oil is found on land, that region must have been undersea in the geological history because that is the only way living organisms can be settled there and then pressurized to form oil. 
  • E.g. the Middle East has enormous oil reserves because of the same reason. From 500-100 million years ago (MYA), large portions of the modern-day Middle East were submerged under a large, now non-existent sea called the Tethys Sea. Rivers feeding this ancient ocean saturated it with nutrients, giving rise to massive numbers of microscopic animals. They died & fell to the bottom of the sea, which was pressurized to form oil.
Petroleum  - Process of Formation

Some History

  • The first oil well was constructed in the USA in 1859.
  • In India, Petroleum was first discovered at Margherita (upper Assam) in 1860 by Assam Railway & Trading Company & then in Digboi in 1869.
  • ONGC was established in 1956. Later, ONGC discovered oil in the Gulf of Khambat in 1961 & Bombay High in 1976.

Global Distribution

1. North America

USA Alaska and Rocky Mountain region
Canada Alberta province
Mexico Tampico and Taxpum region

2. South America

Venezuela Maracaibo Bay and Orinoco Basin
Columbia Maracaibo Bay
Argentina Patagonia Peninsula

3. Europe

Russia Volga-Caspian Region, Kamchatka & Shakalin Region and Ob-Lena Basin
Ukraine Dnieper and Crimea
UK North Sea

4. Asia

Saudi Arabia Ghawar, Abu Sarah and Safania
Iraq Kirkuk and Mosul
Iran Masjid-i-Suleiman, Naft-i-Shah and Lali
UAE Abu Dhabi, Dubai and Sharjah
Qatar Doha and Jebel
China Sinkiang, South China Bay & Bo Hai Bay
Indonesia Sumatra

5. Africa

Libya Gulf of Sidra
Algeria Edjile and Hassi Masaud
Nigeria Boguma and Bonny
Egypt Ras Gharib, Ras Matarma and Sinai peninsula.

Indian Distribution

States Mineral Rich Regions
Assam Digboi
Gujarat On Shore

Gandhar Oil Field
Aliya Bet
Rajasthan Barmer (exploited by Cairns)
Maharashtra Nilam Oil Field (Bombay High)
KG Basin Rawa Oil Field
Narimanam Oil Field

3. Natural Gas

  • Sedimentary rocks in which hydrocarbons are trapped often hold gas, which may be in association with crude oil or alone.
  • It consists primarily of methane, which is lighter than air & toxic. It requires air-tight tanks for storage & similarly, leakproof pipes or trucks for transport, raising capital costs.

Global Distribution

Global Reserves Global Production
Russia Russia
Iran USA
Saudi Arabia Canada
USA Netherlands
Nigeria Algeria
Venezuela Indonesia

Indian Distribution

  • In India, natural gas is found along with oil reserves. India does not have exclusive natural gas reserves. 
  • Oil & Natural gas Commission(ONGC) does the exploration of Natural Gas.
  • According to the estimate, the total Natural Gas reserve is about 450 billion cubic metres.
  • In India, potential Natural Gas sites in India are
    1. Bombay High
    2. Gujarat
    3. Assam
    4. KG Basin
    5. Kaveri Basin
  • After 1990, production of natural gas increased phenomenally yet production falls short of demand,
Year Production (in million m^3)
1960 17
1970 76
1980 200
1990 12,873
2000 20,920
2010 25,750

4. Shale Gas

  • Shale oil, often known as “tight oil,” is found in lesser quantities and deeper than conventional crude reserves. Its extraction requires creating fractures in oil and gas-rich shale to release hydrocarbons through hydraulic fracking.
  • Note: Shale is Sedimentary Rock 
  • It is colourless, odourless & lighter than air.
  • In India, potential Shale Gas reserves are in 
    1.  Cambay
    2. Gondwana 
    3. Krishna-Godavari (K-G) Basin  
    4. Cauvery Basin 
    5. Ganga Basin 
    6. Assam – Arakan Basin 
    7. Barmer Hill Formation (Rajasthan)
Distribution of Shale Gas in India

Atomic Minerals (UPSC Notes India)

Last Updated: May 2023 (Atomic Minerals (UPSC Notes India))

Atomic Minerals (UPSC Notes India)

This article deals with ‘Atomic Minerals (UPSC Notes India).’ This is part of our series on ‘Geography’, which is an important pillar of the GS-1 syllabus. For more articles, you can click here.

Atomic Minerals (UPSC Notes India)

1. Uranium

Two main sources of Uranium are Pitchblende (containing 50-80% Uranium) & Uraninite (containing 65-80% Uranium).

Naturally occurring Uranium is composed of

Isotope Percentage Nature of Radioactivity  
U238 99.3% Fertile/Fissionable It has to absorb a neutron to become fissile. Plutonium is formed in the process.
U235 .7% Fissile U235 can form a self-sustaining chain reaction.
But they need to be enriched to 3-4 % to sustain the chain reaction.

Global Distribution

Significant uranium deposits are found in

  1. Kazakhstan
  2. Canada (Athabasca Basin)
  3. Australia
  4. Niger
  5. Namibia

Distribution in India

In India, Uranium is found in the following areas

Jharkhand Jadughoda
Meghalaya Mahadek Basin  
Andhra Tumallapalle (largest mine in India)  
Karnataka Bhima Basin
Rajasthan Aravallis

India produces 2% of the total Uranium produced in the world. 

Distribution of Uranium in India

Important Note 

  • Uranium Corporation of India Ltd. (UCIL) is responsible for mining uranium ore for commercial purposes.  
  • Uranium mined by the UCIL is used for both weapons and civil nuclear programs. The imported Uranium is used for civil nuclear energy purposes only. 

Uranium Mining Issues 

  • Uranium contamination of groundwater due to Mining
  • Uranium deposits in India are primarily of low grade (less than 0.15% Uranium). 
  • Problems with land acquisition
  • Issues of rehabilitation and resettlement of affected persons

2. Thorium

  • In nature, there is more Thorium than Uranium. 
  • Two primary sources of Thorium are Monazite sands & Allanite. 
  • As such, Thorium found in Monazite is fertile but can be converted to fissile material Uranium.

Global Distribution

Significant uranium deposits are found in

  1. Brazil
  2. Australia
  3. USA
  4. Egypt

Distribution in India

  • India has the largest reserve of Thorium in the world.
  • Main reserves include 
    • Monazite beach sand in Kerala 
    • Found in Andhra (largest producer), Tamil Nadu, Odisha, Kerala and West Bengal