This article deals with ‘Non-Metallic Minerals(UPSC Notes).’ This is part of our series on ‘Geography’, which is an important pillar of the GS-1 syllabus. For more articles, you canclick here.
Mica is primarily used in the electronic and electrical industries.
It can be split into thin sheets, which are tough and flexible.
It can withstand high voltage & has a low power loss factor.
India has the largest deposits & largest producer of mica in the world. However, owing to the development of substitutes, its demand is decreasing.
Nellore district produces the best quality.
The Mica belt extends from Jaipur to Bhilwara to Udaipur.
Mysore and Hasan districts
Coimbatore, Tiruchirappalli, Madurai and Kanyakumari
Diamond is a precious stone known for brilliance, luster, transparency & hardness.
South Africa, the
Republic of Congo, Australia, Ghana, Angola & Namibia are the leading
Plateau (largest producer)
formations (Panna district) is the main diamond-producing area. World-famous
Kohinoor is also from these mines.
polishing diamonds is mainly carried out in Surat, Ahmedabad, Navsari,
Bhavnagar, Mumbai, and Jaipur.
Limestone formations consist of either calcium carbonate, carbonate of calcium & magnesium, or a combination of both.
Additionally, limestone comprises small amounts of silica, alumina, iron oxides, phosphorus, and sulfur.
Limestone deposits are of sedimentary origin and are present in geological sequences from Pre-Cambrian to Recent, excluding Gondwana.
The cement industry utilizes 75 per cent of limestone, with 16 per cent used in the iron and steel industry as a flux and 4 per cent used in chemical industries. The remaining limestone finds applications in diverse sectors such as paper, sugar, fertilizers, etc.
Limestone is produced in all states across India, with Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Chhattisgarh, and Tamil Nadu contributing to over three-fourths of the total limestone production in the country.
MP is the largest producer (16% of total production), with mines in Jabalpur, Betul and Satna.
Limestone production occurs in almost all the districts of Rajasthan.
Cement-grade limestone is found here, especially in the Cudappah and Guntur regions.
Found in Banaskantha
Found in Bastar and Durg districts
Found in Ramnathapuran, Coimbatore, Tirunelveli etc.
China is the largest producer of limestone.
A significant amount of limestone is found in Texas, Kentucky and Indiana.
A substantial amount is found in the Ural mountains and Siberia.
Other producers include Brazil, Mexico, etc.
Asbestos is a fibrous silicate mineral.
Its commercial value is attributed to its fibrous structure, high tensile strength filaments, and exceptional fire resistance.
Important applications of Asbestos include
Manufacturing fire-proof items such as cloth, rope, paper, millboard, and sheeting.
Production of aprons, gloves, and automobile brake linings
Asbestos cement products, including sheets, pipes, and tiles, used in construction
Mixed with magnesia, it contributes to the production of ‘magnesia bricks’ used for heat insulation.
Health Concerns: The use of Asbestos in construction has decreased significantly due to health concerns associated with exposure to Asbestos.
Rajasthan and Andhra Pradesh are the largest
producers of Asbestos in India.
Rajasthan is the largest producer, with a primary concentration in Udaipur, Alwar, Dungarpur, Ajmer, etc.
Mainly found in Cuddapah districts.
Found in Mandya, Shimoga, Chikmagalur and Hassan districts.
Leading global producer with main concentration in aural Mountains
China has an extensive Asbestos concentration in Inner Mongolia.
Found in the Altai Region
Canada was a major asbestos producer, with mines in Quebec; however, the industry has significantly declined in recent years due to health concerns.