This article deals with ‘Quasi-Judicial Bodies.’ This is part of our series on ‘Governance’ which is important pillar of GS-2 syllabus . For more articles , you can click here
What is Quasi Judicial Body
- Quasi-judicial body is an organization or individual on which powers resembling a court of law have been conferred but is not a tribunal within the judicial branch of the government and is not a court exercising judicial power in the constitutional sense.
- Hence , such a body can adjudicate and decide upon a situation and impose penalty upon the guilty or regulate the conduct of an individual or entity but is not part of judiciary .
Emergence of Quasi Judicial Bodies
- As the welfare state has grown up in size and functions, more and more litigations are pending in the judiciary, making it over-burdened. It requires having an alternative justice system. As a result , Ordinary judiciary has become dilatory and costly. Quasi Judicial bodies are part of such alternative justice system
- With scientific and economic development, laws have become more complex, demanding more technical knowledge about specific sectors. Tribunals have such expert members too.
- Conventional judiciary is suffering from procedural rigidity, which delays the justice which these bodies don’t
Quasi Judicial Action vs Administrative Action
- Distinction between
quasi-judicial and administrative action has become blurred . But it does
not mean that there is no distinction between the two. Supreme Court has
dealt this question in A.K. Kraipak
vs. Union of India,
- In order to determine whether the action of the administrative authority is quasi-judicial or administrative, one has to see whether it is done with ‘subjective satisfaction’ or ‘objective satisfaction’ .
|Acts done with Subjective Satisfaction||Are Administrative Acts|
|Acts done with Objective Satisfaction||Are Quasi-Judicial Acts|
- In case of administrative decision there is no legal obligation, upon the person charged with the duty of reaching the decision, to consider and weigh submissions and arguments or to collate any evidence. The grounds upon which he acts, and the means which he takes to inform himself before acting are left entirely to his discretion.
Examples of Quasi Judicial Bodies
Some examples of Quasi judicial bodies in India are
- National and State Human Rights Commissions
- Lok Adalats
- Central and State Information Commissions
- Central Vigilance Commission
- Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission
- Central Administrative Tribunals
- Competition Commission Of India
- Income Tax Appellate Tribunal
- Intellectual Property Appellate Tribunal
More about specific Quasi-Judicial Bodies
1 .National Human Rights Commissions
We have already covered this topic in detail in other article. To read about working of National Human Rights Commission, click on the link below
2 . Lok Adalats
We have already covered this topic in detail in other article. To read about working of Lok Adalats, click on the link below
3. Central Information Commissions
We have already covered this topic in detail in other article. To read about working of Central Information Commission, click on the link below
4. Central Vigilance Commission
We have already covered this topic in detail in other article. To read about working of Central Vigilance Commission, click on the link below
5. Central Administrative Tribunals
We have already covered this topic in detail in other article. To read about working of Central Administrative Tribunals, click on the link below