Role of Family Society and Educational Institutions in Inculcating Values
This article deals with topic titled ‘Role of Family Society and Educational Institutions in Inculcating Values .’ This is part of our series on ‘Ethics’ . For more articles , you can click here
Concept of Socialisation
What is Socialisation ?
- It is process by which person develops values so that he/she can live in society as it’s productive and participative member . Application : If question comes how you will develop this value / attitude , this is the way out
- It is a life long process (from coming out of womb to going to tomb) of shaping individual’s social tendencies so that he becomes and remains a useful and productive member of his society
- A process by which a nascent biological infant becomes a sharing and participating member of his society.
- Process by which a child is indoctrinated into his culture .
- Process by which culture is transmitted from one generation to next & individual develops his personality by learning contents of his culture
Agencies of Socialisation
Values are developed by following agencies
- Family (first agent but informal)
- School & Education (first formal agent)
- Peer Group / Society
- Religion / Culture
- Leaders & Idols (Inspiring figures)
Mechanisms of Socialisation
- Observational Learning
- Conditioning : Reward and Punishment
- Role Playing : Roles we play eg Monitor can become good administrator
- Trial and Error
- Socialisation is the story of involving these agencies and mechanisms to develop certain value system in the individuals. (by extension : if person is showing those values/attitudes which are making him liability on society , we can use this process to mold his values/attitudes accordingly)
- Implicit in the idea of Socialisation is individual will have some discretion which values he wants to imbibe and which he don’t want to imbibe
- Also when individual imbibe values, it is upon his discretion in which way he will behave to show that value. Eg individual has imbibed the value of Patriotism but now how he will show that value in his behavior is upon his discretion
Role of Family in Socialisation (development of values) in Children
- It is the informal agency of socialisation
- Family is network of relationships marked by cooperation, continuity and emotionality not duplicated in any other system.
We will discuss Role of Family in Value inculcation under 3 headings
- Style of Parenting
- Role of Mother
- Role of Father
1 . Styles of Parenting
- It is the Behavior displayed by parents to discipline their children and inculcate values in them
- Parents translate their love and affection for their children into different styles of parenting.
Depending upon the style of Parenting, it can be classified into three types
|Authoritarian||– They believe in restricting the autonomy of their children |
– They impose their value system on their children. Hence children of Authoritarian parents are generally
1. Either Over compliant Or Hostile
2. Less cooperative
3. More Self Centric
4. Less Compassionate
5. Less Empathetic
6. Biased or partial
– In India, most of the children receive Authoritarian Parenting . Reason for this is huge Power Difference as there is clear hierarchy of power enjoyed by parents and children
|Democratic||– They deal with their children in rational & issue oriented manner |
– Unlike authoritarian parents who rely on physical punishment to discipline their children, democratic parents use threat of withdrawal of love as principle mechanism to discipline their children.
– Democratic parenting requires two outstanding qualities ie Patience and Tolerance . People are very low on these qualities even if educated. This is the reason why Democratic parenting is rare even in case of educated parents
– If they make use of physical punishment , they explain to their children why they were given physical punishment .
– They also provide positive re-enforcement on the display of desired behavior.
– Democratic parenting will develop all those values in children which are missing in normal children like Objectiveness , Impartiality , Cooperativeness , Tolerance , Patience , Empathy Compassion etc
|Permissive||– Permissive parents provide their children as much freedom as is consistent with child’s physical survival |
– Their parenting will be characterized by neglect, apathy and non involvement Parents have indifferent behavior towards their children and as a result children will develop following values
2. Non Involvement
– There is tendency among children that they will identify themselves with negative role models and develop negative values . Reason is parents have least watch over their children due to complete indifference towards their children.
How Parents help in formation of values
There is a close contact between the parents and children. Parents are more accessible to the child than other members of the family. The minds of children develop in the major way through the process of non formal education at home. It is often said that home is the first school and parents are the first teachers.
As far as Value development is concerned , Family is one of the agency in formation of Values . Same mechanisms are at play here too ie Observational Learning, Conditioning , Role Modelling and then some other family specific things.
- Observations : Child develop values by observing people who are significant to him. Since child spend maximum time around his parents , hence it is natural that he observe them keenly and start to inculcate values shown by his/her parents .
- Conditioning : Those values which are rewarded by the parents become strong and which are punished become weak. Hence, parents via this help in formation of values in children.
- Role of Customs and Traditions : Customs and traditions taught by the family helps the children to be disciplined and organised. But at the same time if the female members of the family do not have freedom or if they are not allowed to work outside, children would develop same patriarchal mindset.
- Emotional Experience : If children grow among secure individuals they start to trust people around them & their thinking become positive
- Democratic Family Decision making : Family should allow child to participate in decision making as well and allow children to put his own view and thereafter take decision. This helps in inculcating democratic values in child and when child enters his actual life will also starts doing same thing.
- Helping Children of good reading : Parents must encourage children to read good books and learn from them . Along with this telling stories about the life of great persons can also help in this regard.
2. Role played by Mother
- There is emotional bond between child and his caretakers . This bond is significant because it provides security to child to explore his environment & becomes the basis for future inter-personal relationship
- By the time, they are one year old, all babies get attached to the
mother. But the
nature and quality of attachment differs . Based on the demandingness and rewardingness of the
mother , attachment can either be secure or insecure .
- Secure attachment is
- Warm relationship between the mother and child.
- When mothering is consistent and mother presents herself as rational role model to the child, then mother-child relationship is characterised by the presence of trust and mutuality .
- Insecure Attachment : When
- Impervious to the needs of child
- Places unreasonable demands from the child
- Mother-Child relationship is characterised by neglect or indulgence or excessive indulgence
- Secure attachment is characterised by
- Secure attachment is important because
- It will produce value of empathy, tolerance , patience , impartiality , cooperation etc in the children.
- Insecure Attachment will result in following things in children
- Absence of bold and confident behavior
- Lack of trust , self belief and cooperation
- Poor achievement orientation & high dependency orientation
- Avoidance of responsibility assumption
Hence, Insecure attachment provides none of the value demanded from Civil Servant like trust, transparency etc
In most of the cases in India, relationship is of insecure type . Reason for this is , due to patriarchal setup of society and dependence of mother on the males for resources , mother herself is very insecure .
3. Role of Fathers
- Like mother, father also influences the value development of the child through the mechanisms of Observational Learning & Reward and Punishment .
- Boys through their identification with their father acquire gender appropriate values and behavior .
- Likewise , girls through the identification with their father learn to make heterosexual adjustments
2017 UPSC : “If a country is to be corruption free and become a nation of beautiful minds, I strongly feel there are three key societal members who can make a difference. they are father, the mother and the teacher.” – A. P. J. Abdul Kalam. Analyse.
Role of Educational Institutions
- School is the formal agency of socialisation
- It steps into the life of child when child is 4-5 years old
- Helps children in development
- Cognitive Skills : Through Curricular Activities
- Social Skills : Through Extracurricular Activities
- Interpersonal Skills : Through Extracurricular Activities
- Psychomotor Skills : Through Curricular Activities
Agents that are at play in value development at School
|Teachers||– Through their unbiased treatment of the class, help in generation of Impartiality |
– Through their commitment, diligence and timeliness , generate values of hardwork, keeping commitments and observing punctuality
– Inculcate value of rational and objective thinking, scientific temperament
– Teacher can develop self attributional patterns of the learners through judicious use of reward and punishment.
– Main mechanisms at play are
1. Observational Learning
2. Operant Conditioning (Reward & Punishment)
|Curriculum||– Curriculum should provide culture specific inputs that facilitates child’s adjustment in his socio-cultural milieu. |
– Curriculum should use anecdotes (story telling) which can inculcate certain values in children . Eg Stories of Panchtatra or stories of patriotism of freedom fighters etc . It should be done in unbiased manner and should not result in incidents like Saffronisation of Education
|Extracurricular Activities|| These are important to inculcate values of |
2. Cooperative behavior
3. Responsibility assumption
People generally teach their children how to read, write, speak but never teach how to develop a positive thought process
Side Topic : Schools as agents of socialisation is failing because
- There is huge divide between Text & Context
- What is taught at school is challenged at home and vice versa
Hence, when curriculum is designed, policymakers should be aware of the socio-cultural milieu of the child . Along with that, parents reorientation should occur parallel to children .
- More focus on fact memorisation and reproducibility, and not practical knowledge.
Role of Society (Social Influence and Peer Pressure)
- Peer Pressure involves interaction between coequals (in above cases, interaction wasn’t between equals)
- Social Influence can be defined as a change in behaviour caused by real and imagined pressure from others (in society) .
- The most effective social influence attempts to succeed in changing a person’s attitude and behavior . But changing someone’s attitude is not necessary for social influence to occur , all that is required is behavior change.
- But thing is, although social influence don’t require person to change his Values and Attitude but he does change that gradually because if he is working against his values that process will make him pass through Mental turmoil and conflict each time he does that. Gradually, to avoid this he alter his values and attitude.
Categories of Social Influence
|Conformity/ Peer Pressure||Involves changing one’s behavior to match the responses of others and to fit in with those around us |
Why person do this
1. To make person socially acceptable
2. Avoid social rejection
3. Fear of being different from the group
|Compliance||– Act of changing one’s behavior in response to direct request from eg friends, neighbours, relatives etc |
|Obedience||– Special type of compliance that involves changing one’s behavior in response to a directive from authority figure |
– Obedience is good & easy way of behavior change because people usually accept their directive without having much thought on what they are saying
Other things related to when person works in group
- Social Loafing : When person works in group, he tends to put less effort than what he put when he is working individually
- When person feels
less individual ie DEINDIVIDUATED (ie when he
is part of mob or group he losses his individuality) , he is at the mercy
of group whether it is good or bad.
- These things result in mob violence because he dare not speak against what others are saying
- Group Think : The mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision making in group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives.
Role of Media
- Media is the mode of communication . When this media appeals to masses, it becomes case of mass media . Hence, mass media is entire family of technological devices that makes communication with the masses possible .
How Media helps in Socialisation
- Helps in shaping the perception by educating masses
- Along with that observational learning to inculcate values .
- Provide us topics for discussion .
- By teaching values and important lessons . Can be used to promote value of patriotism . Infact, Authoritarian regimes use media for this .
- Media influence our aspirations . Media has increased the aspirations of people for quality of life
Problems with using media as Source of Socialisation
It has increased
- Increased feeling of Relative Deprivation
- Dis-inhibition to various anti-social behaviors
- Blurred the distinction between illusion and reality
- Aspiration explosion
- Paid News : Mass behavior is not shaped by something which is neutral but by somebody who is controlling media with money power
- Sensationalizing of news which may promote communal hatred.
- Desensitization to violence
- Advertisements shown on TV sometimes promotes Stereotyping (eg : Fair and Lovely Ad) & objectification of woman