Sources of Constitution
Indian constitution has adopted various features from different sources especially constitutions of other countries .
- Government of India Act of 1935 – Federal Scheme, Office of governor, Judiciary, Public Service Commissions, Emergency provisions and administrative details.
- British Constitution – Parliamentary government, Rule of Law, legislative procedure, single citizenship, cabinet system, prerogative writs, parliamentary privileges and bicameralism.
- US Constitution – Fundamental rights, independence of judiciary, judicial review, impeachment of the president, removal of Supreme Court and high court judges and post of vice-president.
- Irish Constitution – Directive Principles of State Policy, nomination of members to Rajya Sabha and method of election of president.
- Canadian Constitution – Federation with a strong Centre, vesting of residuary powers in the Centre, appointment of state governors by the Centre, and advisory jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.
- Australian Constitution – Concurrent List, freedom of trade, commerce and inter-course, and joint sitting of the two Houses of Parliament.
- Weimar Constitution of Germany – Suspension of Fundamental Rights during Emergency.
- Soviet Constitution (USSR, now Russia) – Fundamental duties and the ideal of justice (social, economic and political) in the Preamble.
- French Constitution – Republic and the ideals of liberty, equality and fraternity in the Preamble.
- South African Constitution – Procedure for amendment of the Constitution and election of members of Rajya Sabha
- Japanese constitution – procedure established by law