Anti-Microbial Resistance

Anti-Microbial Resistance

This article deals with ‘Anti-Microbial Resistance – for UPSC.’ This is part of our series on ‘Society’, which is an important pillar of the GS-1 syllabus. For more articles, you can click here.

What is Anti-Microbial Resistance?

Anti-Microbial Resistance (aka Antibiotic Resistance) happens when microorganisms (such as bacteria, parasites, viruses and fungi) evolve when they are exposed to the antibiotic and develop resistance mechanisms to it or acquire that resistance from another bacterium. 

Anti-Microbial Resistance


2010 It became a topic of debate in India when the British journal Lancet named an enzyme as New Delhi Metallo-beta-lactamase-1 or NDM-1, which had antimicrobial resistance  
2016 Resistance to Colistin was detected in China. Colistin is the last resort of antibiotics.   
Sept 2016 United Nations held a high-level meeting to tackle Antimicrobial Resistance.  

Note: It was only the fourth time the general assembly held a high-level meeting for a health issue (previously, it was for HIV non-communicable diseases such as heart disease and diabetes and Ebola).
2017 A US woman died from an infection that was resistant to all 26 available antibiotics. 
2023 Muscat Conference on Antimicrobial Resistance held.  Muscat Manifesto was released, calling for
1. Accelerating the political commitments in the implementation of One Health Action
2. Recognize the impact of AMR on humans as well as Animals. 

Causes of Anti-Microbial Resistance

Causes of Anti-Microbial Resistance

Significant sources of resistance: 

  • Overuse of antibiotics by human beings  (over prescription)
  • Self-medication
  • Overuse of antibiotics in the veterinary sector
  • Environmental antibiotic contamination due to pharmaceutical companies and hospital discharge. 
  • Lack of new antibiotics being developed
  • Patients not finishing treatment 
  • Poor infection control in hospitals 

Ways to control Anti-Microbial Resistance


Prescriber should 

  • Follow guidelines
  • Perform Antimicrobial susceptibility tests
  • Maintain hygiene, disinfection and sterilization in the hospital


Farmers should

  • Follow guidelines.
  • Use only animal-specific antibiotics
  • Maintain hygiene


Public should 

  • Follow the prescription and don’t self-medicate himself
  • Public awareness and education should be carried out 


Politician should

  • Establish Antibiotic Resistance related laws
  • Make National Plans and Guidelines 
  • Invigorate the antibiotic development of pharmaceutical companies


Researcher should 

  • Develop a new generation of antibiotics 
  • Develop Molecular Techniques for identifying resistance genes.

Initiatives taken by Government 

1. Red Line Campaign

Red Line Campaign for Anti Microbial Resistance

2. National Surveillance System for Anti-Microbial Resistance 

  • The program keeps a close watch on such cases.

3. National Action Plan on Anti-Microbial Resistance

  • The program was started April 2017  
  • It focused on
    1. Hand Hygiene and Sanitation programs
    2. One Health Strategy

4. National Health Policy, 2017

  • It had specific guidelines for the use of antibiotics and limiting the use of antibiotics.

5. Schedule H1 of Drugs and Cosmetic Rule, 1945

Schedule H1 was added to the Drugs and Cosmetic Rule 1945. Drugs in Schedule H1 are required to be sold in the country with the following conditions:-

  1. Their sale has to be registered in the register with the name of the prescriber and patient  
  2. Drugs shall be labelled with the symbol Rx & drug warning.   

International Steps

1. By WHO

  • WHO is providing technical assistance to countries to develop national action plans to combat Antimicrobial Resistance and strengthen their surveillance systems. 
  • One Health Approach: The One Health approach recognizes the interconnectedness between human, animal, and their shared environment. It emphasizes the importance of addressing health issues comprehensively by considering the interdependencies and interactions between humans, animals, and their shared environments. The ‘One Health’ approach calls for optimal antibiotic use in both humans and animals.

2. UNO

  • A high-level meeting on antimicrobial resistance was held at the United Nations General Assembly.  

3. New Antibiotics 

  • For example, ODLs are a new class of antibiotics discovered by the University of Illinois and Nosopharm, a French company.

Generations of Wireless Communication

Generations of Wireless Communication

This article deals with ‘Generations of Wireless Communication .’ This is part of our series on ‘Science and Technology’ which is an important pillar of the GS-3 syllabus. For more articles, you can click here


Mobile Generations is a system used by cellular telephone manufacturers and service providers to classify wireless communication into several generations; each generation is characterized by new frequency bands, higher data rates and non–backwards-compatible transmission technology. In the recent past, mobile wireless technologies have undergone technology evolution from 0G TO 5G.

Generations of Wireless Communication


  • It is also known as Mobile Radio Telephone or Pre-Cellular.  
  • It was usually mounted in cars & trucks although briefcase models were also available. 
  • Motorola in conjugation with Mobile Telephone System (MTS) introduced it in the US in 1946. 


  • 1G technology was Analog Telecommunication standard.
  • It was introduced in the 1980s.
  • Main Use: Voice Calls.
  • Limitations: Limited capacity, not secure and background interference.
  • Speed: 2 Kbps


  • It was commercially launched as GSM standard in Finland in 1991.
  • It uses Digital Technology (Main difference between 1G & 2G is 1G was analog  and 2G was digital).
  • 2G has two technologies i.e. TDMA (GSM) & CDMA.
  • Main Uses: Voice calls, short messages and browsing .
  • Limitations: Low network range and slow data rates due to which it can’t handle complex data such as videos .
  • Speed: 64 Kbps


  • 2G cellular technology with GPRS (General Packet Data Service) is called 2.5G.
  • It provides the usage of e-mails, MMS, web browsing and camera facilities.
  • Speed: 144 Kbps

EDGE or 2.75G

  • EDGE = Enhanced Data Rule for GSM Evolution
  • It has the same network design, but the data speed was increased noticeably (3 times that of GPRS) .
  • It had the added advantage that there was no need to install additional hardware by the telecom companies.


  • 3G was introduced in 2000.
  • Improvements over 2G: Clarity in Voice calls, digital broadband and increment in speed.
  • Main Uses: Text and high speed internet.
  • Limitations: High power consumption, Low network coverage and High cost of spectrum licence.
  • Speed: 2 Mbps
  • Introduction of 3G technology gave rise to applications not previously available like
    1. Mobile TV
    2. Telemedicine
    3. Video on Demand
    1. Videoconferencing
    1. Location based services


  • Benefits over 3G : Very high speeds at lower price than 3G.
  • Main Uses: High speed applications, IP Telephony , Video Calling , gaming services, HD Tv, 3D TV and Wearable devices.
  • Limitations: LTE supported mobiles and complicated hardware required to use 4G mobile technologies.
  • Speed: 1 Gbps

LTE (Long Term Evolution)

  • 4th Generation Network is called LTE (Long Term Evolution).
  • LTE was designed only as data network.
  • LTE has brought very high bandwidth to mobile devices and  data transfer has become very fast.

VoLTE (Voice Over LTE)

  • VoLTE is a voice technology that works over the LTE data connection.
  • It has extremely high voice quality. It also includes the ability to make video calls.


5G Technology
  • 5G technology has ultra High Speeds and presents a big leap forward from the present 4G technology.
  • Main Use :
    1. Internet of Things (5G System will be intelligent enough to allocate resources. Eg: Driverless car which needs to take a decision in a fraction of seconds will be given greater bandwidth than ordinary user).
    2. Hologram TV
    3. Augmented reality
  • Limitations: It is not Net Neutral and involves high costs.
  • It will use drones and balloons to provide internet everywhere. 
  • Speed: more than 20 Gbps.

Advantages of 5G Technology

Advantages of 5G Technology
  • Faster data speed of more than 20 Gbps.
  • Ultra-low latency: Latency refers to the time it takes for one device to send a packet of data to another device. In 4G the latency rate is around 50 milliseconds but 5G will reduce that to about 1 millisecond.  Hence, it can be used in driverless cars where such things are required.
  • 5G has 30  GHz of available spectrum in comparison to lesser 3 GHz for 4G.
  • 5G antennae consume very little power compared to existing technology. Hence, it will make 5G handsets energy efficient.
  • With higher speed, 5G will improve the quality of remote learning by allowing real-time interactivity and transporting students to virtual classrooms.
  • As per the OECD Committee on Digital Economic Policy, 5G technologies rollout will help in increasing GDP, creating employment and digitizing the economy.
  • It will help to incorporate technologies such as the Internet of Things (IoT) & Artificial Intelligence in our lives. It is said that 5G is the foundation for realising the full potential of IoT.
  • Agriculture: 5G can enable improvement in the entire value chain, from precision farming, smart irrigation, improved soil and crop monitoring, to livestock management.

Challenges in rolling out 5G

  • 5G will not be net neutral.
  • Integration of various standards of 5G: There are already multiple groups working to come up with standards around interoperability, backward compatibility with older technologies etc. Thus standardisation becomes a major challenge
  • Building Infrastructure: It is a huge task, with issues around spectrum and installing new antennas. 
  • Expensive Spectrum in India than other countries.
  • Lack of skilled professionals who can advance  5G technology.
  • The reluctance of people to adopt and support the technology due to unaddressed rumours related to possible health hazards posed by 5G radiations. 
  • Obstacles like buildings, trees and even bad weather can cause interruptions which would require more base stations to be built to ensure better connections.

Other information

  • South Korea has become the world’s first country to launch 5th-Generation (5G) networks.
  • Shanghai has become the World’s First City With 5G Network Coverage.

Indian readiness to adopt 5G

  • In India, Steering Committee, headed by AJ Paulraj has submitted a report titled ‘Making India 5G Ready’.
  • Jan 2021: Bharti Airtel successfully demonstrated its live 5G service in Hyderabad, the first in India showcasing its readiness for the 5G technology.
  • Department of Telecommunication (DoT) has given permission to 4 Telecom Service Providers (TSPs) i.e. Jio, Airtel, Vi and MTNL for conducting trials for the use of and applications of 5G technology (May 2021).
  • D10 Club: “D10″ club is the group of  10 Democratic countries– UK, US, Italy, Germany, France, Japan and Canada plus Australia, South Korea and India with aim of creating alternative suppliers of 5G equipment and other technologies to avoid relying on China.

2019 Huawei Issue

Chinese company Huawei is the frontrunner in 5 G Technology. But the US is against the operations of Huawei because of the following reasons:-

  • Huawei’s founder is an ex-PLA Officer & Huawei indulge in cyber espionage & leaking data to the Chinese government.
  • Other Reason – The US doesn’t want that monopoly of its tech giants like IBM, Google etc is threatened. Until now, rules of the game were written by US firms but Huawei is challenging it (whoever writes the rules will have inherent benefit in future).

ISRO and Indian Space Program

Last Updated: May 2023 (ISRO and Indian Space Program)

ISRO and Indian Space Program

This article deals with ‘ISRO and Indian Space Program.’ This is part of our series on ‘Science and Technology’ which is an important pillar of the GS-3 syllabus. For more articles, you can click here

Evolution of World Space Journey

Timeline of developments in the Space Technology

Space Program of India

  • Indian Space Program is operated by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO).
  • Vikram Sarabhai is known as the father of the Indian Space Program

Objectives of Space Program

India has historically viewed space technology applications primarily for societal development. Hence, the objectives of the Indian Space Program are

  1. Using Space Technology for the socio-economic benefit of people.
  2. Make India self-reliant in space technology.
  3. Peaceful use of outer space.

Department of Space (DoS)

  • Nodal Agency for Space-related activities in India is the Department of Space (DoS). 
  • ISRO is the primary R&D wing of DoS.
  • Other Agencies of DoS include
Physical Research Lab (PRL) Ahmedabad
Semi Conductor Lab Chandigarh
National Atmospheric Research Lab Chittor
North Eastern Space Applications Centre Shillong


  • It is the primary body of Space Research under the Department of Space. 
  • Present Chairman = Dr K Sivan 
  • It is headquartered in Bangalore.


1961 Space Research started under the Department of Atomic Energy under Homi Bhabha.
1962 Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCSR) established & worked to establish TERLS (Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Centre) started.
1969 ISRO was formed.
1972 – Department of Space (independent department) formed.
ISRO was brought under the Department of Space.
1975 Aryabhatta – the first Indian satellite was launched (with Soviet Launch Vehicle).
1980 Rohini – the first satellite was launched using Indian Launch Vehicle

Regional Centres of ISRO

ISRO has its various regional centres like

  1. ISRO Satellite Application Centre, Bengaluru (ISAC): Design and fabricate satellites. 
  2. Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Thiruvananthapuram (VSSC): Develop satellite launch vehicles (like PSLV and GSLV).
  3. Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota (SDSC): Satellite launching station of India. 
  4. Space Application Centre, Ahmedabad (SAC): Conceptualize and carry out different space research projects. 
  5. Liquid Propulsion System Centre, Mahendragiri, TN (LPSC): Development of satellite propulsion systems. 
  6. ISRO Telemetry, Tracking and Command Network, Bengaluru (ISTRAC) 
  7. Master Control Facility, Bhopal and Hassan (Karnataka): Observe and control all geostationary satellites.
  8. National Remote Sensing Agency, Hyderabad: Act as a key player in earth observation program and disaster management.
ISRO and Indian Space Program

Side Topic: Equivalent of ISRO of other nations

Russia RKA
China CNSA
Europe ESA
Japan JAXA


  • Antrix is the private arm of ISRO
  • It was incorporated in 1992 and awarded ‘Miniratna‘ status in 2008. 
  • Its main functions include 
    1. Promotion and commercialization of space products.
    2. Providing technical consultancy services.
    3. Deals with the transfer of technologies developed by ISRO.  
    4. It also offers various services and space products to international customers worldwide.

New Space India Limited (NSIL)

  • NSIL is the commercial arm of ISRO. 
  • It was incorporated in 2019 as a Government-owned enterprise.
  • The main functions of NSIL include 
    • NSIL will enable Indian industries to build the capacity of the domestic market for space manufacturing.
    • NSIL will facilitate the transfer of ISRO technologies to the industry. 
  • The launch of a Brazilian satellite named ‘Amazonia-1’ in 2021 was the first commercial deal of NSIL.

Indian National Space Promotion and Authorization Centre (IN-SPACE)

  • IN-SPACE works under the Department of Space.
  • IN-SPACE functions autonomously and parallel to ISRO.
  • IN-SPACE has its own directorates for technical, legal, safety and security, monitoring and activities promotion.
  • The function of IN-SPACE includes regulation and promotion of the building of satellites, rockets and commercial launch services through Indian industry and StartUps.

Satellite Launching Stations / Launch Pads

  • Presently, India has only one launch station at Sriharikota in Andhra Pradesh with two launch pads.
  • India is building its second rocket launch station in the Thoothukudi district in Tamil Nadu. 
  • Note: Satellite launching stations (including that of India) is located on the east coast and as close to the equator as possible due to the following reasons:-
    • The Earth’s rotation provides an additional boost, and the strength of the boost is higher closer to the equator.
    • In case of failure, debris would fall into the Bay of Bengal, potentially saving property and lives.

Side Topic: Satellite Launch Stations of other countries

USA Cape Canaveral (Florida)
France French Guyana (in South America)
Iran Emamshahr
China Jiquan
Japan Uchinoura
Russia Kapustin Yar

Achievements of Indian Space Program

  • India has emerged as one of the 6 most important countries in the field of space research. 
  • India is self-reliant in launching remote sensing and communication platforms.
  • With GSLV MK-III, India is now in the elite club which can launch heavy Geo-Stationary Communication Satellites. 
  • World Record was created by ISRO by launching 104 Satellites in a single launch.
  • ISRO is launching satellites for other countries as well and earning foreign exchange (Eg: Amazonia-1 (Brazil).
  • Space program contributes to national security in the form of improving surveillance capability.
  • The space program is helping India emerge as technological power and knowledge-based economy. 

Challenges to Indian Space Program

  • Indian Space Program needs to move from research and development to a commercial level.
  • India should boost the frequency of launches. This will reduce the cost & make it cost-competitive.
  • There is a need to develop capabilities to build a much larger number of satellites than the current 3-4 per year. 
  • Most of the space launches are for socio-economic development. ISRO needs to move ahead and work for the country’s military and defence needs as well.

Side Topic: Cases in news

Nambi Narayanan Case

In 1994, Nambi Narayanan, who was working on Cryogenic Engine and was on the verge of making it, was arrested for selling secrets. CBI later found that the charges were false, and he was discharged in 1996. The case was fabricated by IB Officials in connivance with the CIA because the US didn’t want India to develop a Cryogenic Engine as it would have challenged the monopoly of the US, Russia, and France.

Devas Antrix Case

In 2005, Antrix Corporation signed an agreement with Devas Multimedia to lease S-band transponders on two ISRO satellites (GSAT 6 and GSAT 6A) for a price of ₹1,400 crore, which is significantly lower than the market price. In 2009, the Devas – Antrix deal was exposed. This was named Antrix – Devas S-band spectrum scam. After a CBI investigation, the deal was annulled. Subsequently, Devas made an appeal in the International Court, which has declared that the annulling of the agreement by the Government of India was “unfair” and inequitable”. 

Glance at ISRO’s flagship missions

1 . Indian Regional  Navigation Satellite System  (IRNSS) 

  • IRNSS or NAVIC is India’s indigenous GPS.
  • It is already operational.  

2. Reusable  Satellite  Launch Vehicle 

  • This mission will reduce the cost of delivering satellites into orbit to 1/10th of the present cost.  

3. Cryogenic  Engine (GSLV MK III)

  • GSLV MK III with Cryogenic Stage has been developed successfully.
  • It can be used to launch payloads of up to  4 tonnes into the geostationary orbit. 

4. Chandrayaan 2

  • After the unprecedented success of Chandrayaan-1, ISRO decided to launch Chandrayaan-2 in July 2019. 
  • It had Rover and Lander.
  • Mission achieved a partial success.


Expanding the boundaries Of human knowledge

5. Aditya  Space  Satellite

  • Aditya Mission will study the Corona of Sun.
  • ISRO will launch it shortly.

6. Venus  Exploration program/ Shukrayaan

  • To study the atmosphere of Venus for a period of 4 years.
  • ISRO will launch it shortly. 
  • France is also collaborating with India on its mission to Venus. 

7. Gaganyaan

  • Gaganyaan is a 3-ton ISRO   spaceship to carry a 2-member crew to the Low Earth Orbit and safe return to the Earth after a few orbits to two days.  
  • The extendable version of the spaceship will allow flights up to 7 days and have docking capability with space stations. 

8. Second Launch Station

  • India is building its second rocket launch station in the Thoothukudi district in Tamil Nadu. 
  • The project will house one launchpad exclusively for Small Satellite Launch Vehicles (SSLV).
  • Presently, India has only one launch station at Sriharikota in Andhra Pradesh with two launch pads.

9. Space Parks

  • The government is making a 100-acre Space Park in Bangalore.
  • Private industry players would be allowed to set up facilities to make subsystems and components for satellites. 

10. Village Resource Centre

  • 473 Village Resource Centres (VRCs) have been established by ISRO.  
  • It uses Satellite Communication (SATCOM) network and Earth Observation (EO) satellites.
  • VRCs provide services like telemedicine (by connecting sick people in villages through VSAT network to the doctors), Tele-education (providing a virtual classroom facility to far-flung villages), and providing advisories related to agriculture. 
  • There is a need to upscale VRCs and link all village Panchayats. 

Outreach Programs of ISRO

  • YUVIKA ProgramProgram aims to inculcate and nurture space research enthusiasm in young minds. Under this 1-month program, 3 students from each of state and UT is selected provided that the student has just finished 9th standard and is waiting to join 10th standard.
  • Young Scientist Program: It is an ISRO program for school students aiming to teach and nurture space research fervour in young minds.
  • Samvad with Students: Under the ISRO program called Samvad with Students, the ISRO chairman meets the students during his outstation visits, addresses their queries, and quenches the scientific thrust.
  • ISRO-Student Collaborations: ANUSAT (Anna University Satellite), Student Satellite (STUDSAT), SRMSAT (SRM University), Jugnu (IIT Kanpur) etc.

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