This article deals with ‘ Demographic Theories.’ This is part of our series on ‘Society’ which is an important pillar of GS-1 syllabus. For more articles, you can click here.
What is demography?
Demography is the statistical study of the human population. It includes the study of size, structure and distribution of population as well as changes in time and location in response to birth, migration, ageing and death.
Humanity is condemned to live in poverty forever because Human population grow at a much faster rate than food resources. According to Malthusian Theory
Food production increases in Arithmetic Progression (AP) while
Population increases in Geometric Progression (GP).
Hence, to make a balance between population vs food supply nature uses positive checks
checks by nature
checks by humans
According to Malthus, famines and diseases were inevitable as they are nature’s way of dealing with the imbalance between food supply and increasing population.
Debate: Has the Malthusian theory lost its significance?
Some experts opine that with the world surplus of food and advances in medical science, the theory of positive checks of nature of Malthus has become obsolete.
Whereas other experts are of the view that we are observing the change in positive checks of nature. These include
With world temperature rising due to global warming, theocean level is rising.
Increase in frequency of natural disasters due to climate change
Attack of new pests on crops.
The new type of pandemics caused by new pathogens like the Corona Virus.
Demographic Transition Theory
Phase-1: Period of stagnant or stationary
The period from 1901-1921.
The growth rate during this phase was very low, even recording a negative growth rate during 1911-1921.
Both the birth rate and death rate were high keeping the rate of increase stagnant.
Poor health and medical services, illiteracy of people at large and inefficient distribution system of food and other necessities were largely responsible for a high birth and death rates in this period.
Phase-2: Period of steady population growth
The period from 1921-51.
An overall improvement in health and sanitation throughout the country brought down the mortality rate. At the same time, better transport and communication system improved food distribution system. But birth rate remained high in this period leading to a higher growth rate than the previous phase.
Phase-3: Period of Population Explosion
Period of 1951-1981.
This was caused by a rapid fall in the mortality rate due to control over famines and epidemics but a high fertility rate of population in the country. (It should be noted that death rates can be brought down relatively quickly through advanced methods of disease control, public health, and better nutrition. However, it takes longer for society to adjust to change and alter its reproductive behaviour.)
Phase-4: Period of Moderate Growth
Period post-1981 till present.
The growth rate of the country’s population though remained high, started slowing down gradually. This was due to a moderate decline in fertility due to the use of modern contraceptives.
Phase 5 : Period of Contraction
India has not entered this phase. Developed countries like Japan and western European nations are in this phase.
During this phase, the population starts to contract due to low birth rate although the death rate is also very low.
This article deals with ‘ Migration .’ This is part of our series on ‘Society’ which is important pillar of GS-1 syllabus . For more articles , you can click here .
What is Migration ?
Migration refers to spatial mobility between one geographical unit and another , generally involving change of residence for a considerable period of time .
The Census defines a migrant as a person residing in a place other than his/her place of birth or one who has changed his/ her usual place of residence to another place .
Migration includes both additive (at place of destination) as well as separative (at place of origin) aspects.
Types of Migration in India
India has witnessed
the waves of migrants coming to the country from Central and West Asia and
also from Southeast Asia. In fact, the history of India is a history of
waves of migrants coming and settling one after another in different parts
of the country. Similarly, large numbers of people from India too have
been migrating to places in search of better opportunities especially to
the countries of the Middle East, Western Europe, America, Australia and
East and South East Asia.
Migration can be divided into the following types on the basis of origin and destination:
Rural to Rural R → R (mostly in cases of marriages only)
Rural to Urban R → U (also known as Urbanisation)
Urban to Urban U → U
Urban to Rural U → R (very unlikely. It includes doctor or any govt employee going to village for job or reverse migration of the earlier migrant)
Other basis of division can be whether within country or outside
Internal Migration – Within same country . Which
can further be divided into
state : Within State
Inter-state : Between States
International Migration – From one
country to other country.
On the basis of duration
Semi-Permanent (when due to lack of economic
resources, people are not able to sustain their living in the destination
regions and are forced to migrate back) .
Seasonal / Circular ( because of rainfed nature of our agriculture along with
the lack of employment
opportunities, people migrate to other areas during lean season and
come back to the source region once that period is over).
Trends of migration in India
According to Census 2011, 45.36 crore people i.e. 37% of the population or every third citizen of India is a migrant —now settled in a place different from their previous residence.
1 . Intrastate Migration
About three-fourths of all intrastate migrants were females corroborating the fact that marriage is the prime reason for such migration. Most people, 49%, migrate for marriage (while globally, migration is attempt by people to survive and prosper, in India, marriage appears to be the biggest reason why people migrate).
Rural to Urban in search of good job and educational facilities.
Urban to Urban : Due to job transfers etc.
2 . Interstate Migration
From underdeveloped states like Uttar Pradesh, Bihar etc. to comparatively developed regions like Maharashtra , Punjab, NCR Delhi, Chandigarh etc.
As per census 2001, Maharashtra occupied first place in the list with 2.3 million net in-migrants, followed by Delhi, Gujarat and Haryana. On the other hand, Uttar Pradesh (-2.6 million) and Bihar (-1.7 million) were the states, which had the largest number of net out-migrants from the state.
Interstate Migration is also of two types with different Destination
2.1 Rural as Destination
Mostly agricultural labourers from underdeveloped states coming to Punjab, Haryana etc.
2.2 Urban as Destination
These include groups of industrial labourers .
Post LPG reforms and ICT
revolutions , Migration of skilled
professionals in IT sectors to Bangalore, NCR
, Mysore, Hyderabad, Chandigarh etc. where BPOs are situated .
3 . International Migration
international migration is seen from whole country but especially from
Kerala & Punjab .
to Gulf Nations
to Canada, UK, Australia and to lesser extend to Gulf nations
Benefit that these regions are
getting huge remittances . But it is an issue of worry
because of high brain-drain.
Side Topic : Curious Case of Mexican International Migrants
Mexico’s emigration problem is
a unique one, with more than 98% of all Mexican migrants living in the
U.S.A, the country with which Mexico shares a border that runs 3110 km in
The Mexican emigration rate
increased substantially since the 1960s and, with more than 11% of
Mexicans living abroad, Mexico is the country with the largest number of
emigrants in the world.
Side Topic : Brain Drain
Brain drain is related to
selective migration of educated people . Some countries are losing the
most educated segment of their population. It can be both a benefit for
the receiving country and a problem to the country of origin.
Impact on receiving country
Receiving country gets highly
qualified labour which contributes to the economy right away.
It promotes economic growth in
strategic sectors especially science and technology.
Receiving country doesn’t have
to pay education and health costs, for example, 30% of Mexicans with a PhD
are in the US.
Country of origin
Education and health costs are
not paid back to the country of origin. It is losing potential leaders and
It has long term impact on
economic growth. It has the possibility of getting remittances. Many brain
drain migrants have skills which they can’t use at home. The resources and
technology may not be available there. The specific labour market is not
Theories of Migration
1 . Ravenstein’s Gravity Model
Movement of population gravitates around the centres of socio-economic opportunities .
Distance Decay Principle says that ‘As
distance increases , the tendency to migrate decreases’.
2. Pull-Push Hypothesis
Migration is the result of interplay
between expulsive forces at place of
origin and attractive forces at place of
1. Famine & Floods 2. War 3. Huge Crime Rate 4. Low Jobs 5. Harsh Climate
1. Better Jobs 2. Education 3. Cleanliness 4. Better Standard of living 5. Better Climate
3. Cost and Benefit Model
between cost and benefits that will accrue after migration determines
Cost of Migration
1. Cost of travelling 2. Costs of searching job 3. Getting training 4. Psychic costs etc.
1. More earnings 2. Better living standard 3. Enhancement of prestige etc.
Causes of Migration
1 . Push Factors
forcing person to leave his residence and move to some other place
1.1 Economic Causes
Lack of jobs
Low levels of Economic
Development led migration
=> building dam can force number of villages to be evacuated .
Pressure of population
resulting in a high man to land ratio .
1.2 Socio-Cultural Causes
Caste System : Dalits feel suffocated in villages and hence migrate .
Higher pressure on limited
land in bigger families .
Marriage : Most people, 49%, migrate for marriage purposes.
Family conflicts also cause
1.3 Political Causes
Targeted violence against community create fear among the
survivors and force them to migrate => Eg: Large Sikh migration from
Delhi to Punjab post 1984 riots and exodus of Kashmiri pandits from the
Adoption of the jobs for ‘sons of the soil policy’ by the State governments . Eg
: The rise of Shiv Sena in Bombay, with its hatred for the
migrants and the occasional eruption of violence in the name of local
2. Pull Factors
Migrants are lured by the attractive conditions in the new place.
2.1 Economic Causes
Economic opportunities &
Jobs in cities and abroad .
Better standard of living,
health & educational facilities etc.
In recent years, the high rate
of movement of people from India to the USA, Canada & Middle-East is
due to better employment
opportunities, higher wages & better amenities .
2.2 Socio-Cultural Causes
Caste don’t play much role in urban areas (due to urban anonymity).
2.3 Political Causes
Political freedom in western countries.
3. Pull Back Factors
This has been a recent phenomenon. With better opportunities for employment (due to MGNREGA and other schemes, agricultural revolutions) individuals are pulled back to their native places.
Side Topic : Internal Migration due to disasters
India had the highest number
of internally displaced people (IDP) due disasters (five million) in the world in 2019 .
5,90,000 people in India live
are internally displaced due to disasters in India as a result of various
cyclones like Fani, Vayu, Bulbul etc along with south west monsoon and
droughts in various parts.
IDPs are different from
refugees in that, having not crossed a border, they are not typically
covered by international refugee protections. They remain subjected to
national laws, and as such are afforded less protection .
Characteristics of the Migrants in India
Age selectivity : Most migrants, especially in developing countries are
predominantly young adults. Also a major part of the female migration
consequential to marriage occurs at the young adult ages.
Chain migration : Migrants have a tendency to move to those places where
they have contacts and where the previous migrants serve as links for the
new migrants and chain is thus formed in the process .
Among women, as expected,
marriage was the most important reason for migration, followed by
Consequences of Migration
1 . On the destination
Creates pressure on urban infrastructure due to increased traffic, competition for housing facilities & water etc.
Create social and ethnic tensions due to clash of interests between migrants and locals due to rise in prejudice and xenophobia against migrants .
Mismanaged migration leads to formation of slums and ghettos and act as source for outbreak of diseases .
It leads to skewed sex ratio in favour of males .
2. On the source
Separation of individual migrants from the origin areas &
Results in loss of human resource for the state, especially if the migration is of
Migrants acts as agent of social change. Internalised urban values are transmitted to native place .
women : It leads to
‘Feminisation of labour & agriculture’ at source . Because of the male migration from Kerala,
wives suffer from neurosis, hysteria and depression.
Remittances sent by the migrants has the most
important impact. Remittances are mainly used for food, repayment of debts,
treatment, marriages, children’s education, agricultural inputs,
construction of houses, etc. For thousands of the poor villages of Bihar,
Uttar Pradesh, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh etc. internal
remittance works as life blood for their economy.
Migration leads to evolution of composite culture and broadening
of the mental horizon of the people at large.
Migration has also changed the
of the rural areas corroborated by following facts
Reduced family size among the migrants as compared to
non-migrants. The separation of the rural male migrants from their wives for
long durations tends to reduce the birth rate.
Ageing of Villages as migrants are young leaving old age in
Increased Sex Ratio in villages as men usually migrate
leaving females behind.
3. On migrants
Problem of document and identity which deprives them of social
security benefits and government socio-economic programs.
Migration and slums are
inextricably linked. Most slums are inhabited by the
migrants. Such slums are deprived of basic healthcare and sanitation
Limited access to Formal
Financial Services results in them being exploited by their employers and
they face risk of theft and personal injury in saving and transferring
They face political exclusion because most of the times they don’t have voting
rights at the destination. Further they are target of political rhetoric
of local identity politics and
subjected to violence and abuse.
Inter-State Migrant Workmen Act, 1979, required all establishments
who hired inter-state migrants to be registered, as well as all
contractors who recruited these workers to be licensed.
During Covid times
(in 2020) and problems faced by the migrants during that time, need was
felt to create a database to map migrant workers scattered across the
country. Hence, Government has decided to
create a database of migrant workers using existing databases of government schemes such as
MGNREGA, and the one nation-one ration card .
There is a legislation i.e. Interstate Migrant Workmen Act, 1979 which aims to safeguard migrants . However , it is obsolete and hardly enforced . Need of the hour is the judicial implementation of the act in letter and spirit .
Rather than treating migration as problem, destination states should aim to accommodate them into the economy of the state. There is ample evidence to support the fact that migrants generally take up those jobs and businesses which are not done by the locals.
The planning of cities should keep in mind the needs of the migrants.
Political class, civil society and NGOs should conduct inter group interactions to ward off mistrust between natives and migrants.
This article deals with ‘Women Safety in India .’ This is part of our series on ‘Society’ which is important pillar of GS-1 syllabus . For more articles , you can click here .
includes various dimensions like sexual
harassment at workplace, rape, marital rape, dowry, acid attack etc.
India is the 4th most
dangerous country in the world for woman (Afghanistan, Pakistan and Congo
are ahead of India) .
Factors aggravating & affecting women safety
1 . Socio-Economic-Cultural Factors
of Patriarchal System .
Commodification of women .
Influence of “Western
2 . Institutional Failures
Poor enforcement of laws and
present laws have various lacunae .
Poor conviction rate in crimes
against women .
justice system .
Poor gender sensitization of law enforcing
police, judiciary etc.
3 . Lack of Reporting
Women don’t complain due to various reasons like social stigma or fear of retaliation.
4. Infra Gaps
Poorly lit urban spaces coupled with inadequate police patrolling .
Note – Not only physical spaces but women is not safe in India even on digital space (Internet) .
Justice Verma Committee
was formed after the horrific event of Nirbhaya death .
Recommendations of the committee
It rules out
death sentence for rape convicts .
Life Imprisonment in case of
Rape means imprisonment for entire natural life of convict .
Stalking to be viewed as serious offence .
Law Enforcement Agencies are Gender Insensitive .
Marital Rape should be made offence under
An officer who doesn’t report
a FIR or delays it for a rape case should be punished.
Government schemes in this regard
1 . Acts and legal measures
Sexual Harassment of Women at
workplace Act 2013 .
Various provisions under IPC .
States also have
specific laws. Some states like Maharashtra have amended their laws making
their provisions more stringent. Under the new Shakti Act, 2020, provisions include death penalty for
rape, fine up to Rs 10 lakh on perpetrators of violence,
investigation to be completed
within 15 days after an FIR is filed , trial has to be completed within 30
days after the chargesheet is filed against an accused.
2 . Surakshit Nari , Sashakt Nari
Following things have been done under this scheme
Panic Button has been introduced in the Mobiles .
181 – Universal Women Helpline number has been started .
Himmat App : To raise SOS alert has been started .
Surveillance cameras have been installed in trains .
3. Sakhi- One Stop Centre Scheme
It provides support women affected from violence .
Scheme offers Medical Aid , Police Assistance, Legal Aid , Counselling and shelters .
4 . Transportation Schemes
Pink Auto initiative of Odisha: pink autos drivers have
undergone psychological test and training.
: Women compartment in Metro .
Side Topic : Sex Offenders Registry
In 2018 , India has joined the 8 countries
that maintain Sex Offenders
It will be maintained by NCRB
It will contain Residential
Address, Fingerprints, DNA Sample,
PAN & Aadhar Number of convicted sexual offenders .
Database will not be available
to public (unlike US) .
Instil fear in the minds of repeat sexual
It will be very beneficial and
handy for the law enforcement agencies also.
This could prove
counterproductive . Reason = Out of the 39,000 cases of rape , in nearly
95% cases, the accused was known to the victim and was close family member. In such a scenario when there is already
pressure on the victim to not report the crime from within the family,
this will make the victim more vulnerable to pressure given the prospect
that once the name comes in the registry , person will have limited access
to jobs .
Issue of Technical Rape : Registry will also contain
name of persons accused of TECHNICAL RAPE – a term used by law enforcement
to describe consensual sexual activity involving a girl under 18.
Studies on similar initiatives in US and UK shows that such registries
have virtually no effect on reducing crime .
Domestic violence in India is endemic. Around 70% of women in India are victims .
Forms of Domestic Violence
– Includes slapping, kicking, hitting, beating etc. – It is the most visible form .
– Includes harassment; threats, verbal abuse , blaming and isolation etc. – It erodes woman’s sense of self-worth .
– Includes touching, or fondling; sexual coercion ; wife swapping etc.
Causes of Domestic Violence
Dowry Demands : It can lead to physical & emotional
abuse and even dowry death and bride burning.
Patriarchal structure of household
Cultural acceptance of Domestic Violence.
Not having a male child.
Violence against young widows
esp. in rural areas as they are cursed for their husband’s death .
Under Reporting : Under reporting & non reporting
encourage partner to indulge more into this .
Effects of Domestic Violence
Emotional distress & suicidal tendencies in women suffering from
Infringement of Fundamental Rights of women including Right to Life .
Serious health problems : Injury, Unwanted Pregnancy etc.
Negative Impact on Children : Children of such parents also face psychological
problems and they live in atmosphere of fear .
Act : Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005
Definition of Domestic Violence
has been modified recently – it
includes actual abuse or the threat
of abuse that is physical,
sexual, verbal, emotional and economic and further
harassment by way of unlawful dowry demands to the woman or her relatives.
It has widened
the scope of the term WOMEN : Act
now covers “live- in partners”, wives, sisters, widows, mothers, single women,
divorced women .
Right to Secure Housing i.e. right to reside in the matrimonial or shared
household, whether or not she has any title or rights in the
Principal of Locus Standi doesn’t apply .
For women who prefer not to
stay in the shared household, state
needs to create shelter homes.
To fast-track the verdict , first hearing
should happen within 3 days after receiving application and case should be disposed
in 60 days.
Protection Officers to provide assistance to woman for medical
examination, legal aid etc.
Act has a provision of upto 1 year imprisonment .
Lacunae in the Act
Madras High Court Bench
observed that it can be misused by
the women to file frivolous cases .
A man can be
booked under the Domestic Violence act even if women feel that she has
been mentally harassed and verbally
abused. But these terms are subjective .
Conviction rate is very low (just 3%) .
Marital rape is not included
in the definition of Domestic Violence.
There is no provision of
online filing of cases .
Number of protection officers
appointed in state are inadequate .
Act singles out men as
perpetrators of domestic violence and assumes that only women are victims.
A man, who is a victim of domestic violence, has no rights under this law.
In the western world, the domestic violence laws provide protection to both men and women.
the law in its current form is grossly inadequate to tackle the problem of
domestic violence. It imposes a lot of
responsibility on men, without giving them rights. On the other hand, it gives
lots of rights to women without requiring them to be responsible.
Recent Judgement making it Gender Neutral
Court has laid down that a woman can also file a complaint against another woman,
accusing her of domestic violence.
Reasoning of Court
Since the perpetrators and
abettors of domestic violence can also be women, insulating them would
frustrate the objectives of the Act. Under this immunity, females and minors can continue to commit
It discriminates between
persons similarly situated and, thus, violates Article 14 of the
Significance of the Change
It makes Domestic Violence
gender neutral .
However, there are concerns
that it would encourage
husbands to file counter cases against their wives through their mothers
This article deals with ‘Triple Talaq .’ This is part of our series on ‘Society’ which is important pillar of GS-1 syllabus . For more articles , you can click here .
In Shayara Bano v. Union of India(‘Triple Talaq case’) , Supreme Court declared Triple Talaq as un-Islamic and “arbitrary” .
Triple Talaq (also known as Talaq-e-Bidat) is a practice in which a man pronounces ‘talaq’ thrice in a sitting, or through phone, or writes in a talaqnama or a text message and the divorce is considered immediate and irrevocable, even if the man later wishes to reconciliate.
The only way for the couple to go back to living together is through a Nikah Halala, and then return to her husband. Nikah Halala refers to practice under which a divorced Muslim woman has to marry another man and consummate the marriage and get a divorce. Only then can she be eligible to remarry her former husband.
Why Triple Talaq should be banned ?
Triple Talaq is not Essential Practice
of Islam : It is not an Islamic Practice but social practice of Arab Society which has gradually crept into
Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait,
Morocco, Philippines, Sudan,
Syria, UAE and Yemen have made concept of Triple Talaq
unconstitutional & India must follow the suit .
It infringes Right to Equality and Right to Life of women.
2012 Committee on the Status of Women recommended to ban Triple Talaq and polygamy.
Arguments against Supreme Court’s interference in Triple Talaq
In Narasu Appa Mali (1952) Case, Supreme Court held that, personal laws are not Laws for purpose of Article 13 . Hence, they can’t be scrutinised for violation of fundamental rights violations .
Religious practices are safeguarded under Article 25 of the Constitution .
Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Marriage) Act
1986 : Shah Bano Case
Shah Bano Case was to decide whether the relief extended to divorced women under CrPC, 1973, applied to Muslims too. Constitution bench decided that it extended to Muslim women as well.
Shah Bano Act / Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Divorce) Act was enacted by the Rajiv Gandhi government to overturned Supreme Court order . It held that divorced women was entitled to maintenance for period of iddat (3 lunar cycles / menstruations) only .
Daniel Latifi Case – Maintenance for period of (only) iddat was challenged for violating Article 14 & 21 . Supreme Court held that this doesn’t violate Article 14 & 21 as intelligible difference can be made in this case.
Provisions of Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Marriage) Act
Triple Talaq will not nullify the marriage
Act makes Triple Talaq a criminal offence with
imprisonment of upto 3 years .
Act shall be cognisable and non-bailable (i.e. police officer can
arrest without a warrant.)
Principle of Locus Standii don’t apply : Complainant can be any body
– not just wife.
Act also provides provision of
reconciliation without undergoing the process of Nikah Halala if the two
sides agree to stop legal proceedings and settle the dispute.
Muslim woman, against whom
Talaq has been declared, is entitled to seek subsistence allowance from
her husband for herself and for her dependent children. The amount of the
allowance will be determined by the Magistrate.
Main issues with bill
Act converts a civil wrong into a criminal wrong as marriage is a civil
Against Doctrine of Proportionality and hence infringes Right to
Equality . Under IPC, 3 year jail term is for crimes like rioting.
Against principles of natural justice : Triple Talaq don’t nullify marriage .
Hence, when Crime is not committed , how can person be punished for act of
Issue of implementation: The is difficult to implement, especially in
cases of oral triple divorce given by husbands when no one other than the
couple was present
Rise in divorces and abandonment: Issues remain as no husband
on his return from jail is likely to retain the wife on whose complaint he
had gone to prison.
Points in favour of Criminalisation of Triple Talaq
Triple Talaq has
never been sanctioned even in Islamic scripture . In Pakistan and
Bangladesh too , which are Islamic countries, Triple Talaq is criminal
offence (with imprisonment upto 1 year ) .
Government Intent is not to
punish . Government argues that if nobody gives Triple Talaq, nobody gets
SC judgment of 2017 had
recognised the discriminatory nature of Triple Talaq. The Muslim Women
(Protection of Rights on Marriage) Act 2019 offers Muslim women recourse
and access to protection of the law from the practice of arbitrary instant
This article deals with ‘ Women in Combat Forces .’ This is part of our series on ‘Society’ which is important pillar of GS-1 syllabus . For more articles , you can click here .
In news because
2018 : India announced that women will be allowed to occupy combat
roles in all
sections of army, navy and air
2019 : Sainik Schools opened
for girls (Earlier only boys could take admission)
2020 : Women allowed Permanent Commission by Supreme Court. So far,
women officers are recruited mostly on short service commission for 14
years , which means they are not
eligible to get pension.
being inducted in the armed forces since 1990s women officers form a meagre
number in the total armed forces of the country. Currently,
%age of women in Indian Forces
Army : 3.80%
Air Force : 13%
Navy : 6%
officers were mostly inducted under the Short service commission (SCC) where
they can serve maximum of 14 years .
Women were directly permanently commissioned only in the education,
legal branches, medical, dental and nursing services.
other countries as well, this issue is contentious. Countries such as the United Kingdom
and the United States have been conservative about women in their respective
combat arms, while others like the Israeli Defense Forces have achieved
widespread integration of women.
Case study of Gunjan Saxena
Issue of acceptability of women as officer by
Concerns over women’s vulnerability on capture and maternity women are not
allowed in combat roles
The combat roles are physically demanding .
It should not be a political
On name of Gender Equality, security of
nation shouldn’t be put at risk .
Rationale for the decision to include women in forces
Right to Equality
Right to freedom of
profession (Article 19(1)(g)).
Qualities required for a good soldier are taking responsibility for
fellow soldiers , moral and mental toughness; expert in the use of weapon
, commitment etc and women score
better in these .
fittest people should be taken and resource pool should not be limited to
half by putting a blanket ban on women.
Landscape of modern warfare itself has changed with more
sophisticated weapons, focus on intelligence gathering and emergence of
cyberspace as arenas of combat.
Granting Permanent Commission
to women officers will make them eligible to full pension post their
retirement, thereby securing their futures.
This article deals with ‘Women in Politics .’ This is part of our series on ‘Society’ which is important pillar of GS-1 syllabus . For more articles , you can click here .
a very low status in the political scenario in the country. The number of women
in the Parliament has never crossed the 20% mark till now.
not considered fit for politics earlier.
According to philosophers like Kant , women have inability to control emotions
& thus, inability to be impartial & rational, requires their exclusion
Following amendment bills have already been introduced
73rd & 74th amendments to
the constitution has provision of reservation of 1/3rd for women in
Panchayati Raj Institutions .
108th Constitutional Amendment Bill to
provide 1/3rd reservation for women in Lok Sabha .
110th Constitutional Amendment Bill to reserve
50% seats for
women in Local Bodies .
Pam Rajput Committee recommended 50% reservation of seats for women at
all political levels .
Data of Women Representation in Politics
(17th) Lok Sabha has 14.6% women representatives .
Rajya Sabha has 11% women representatives .
State Legislatures have just
9% women representatives (some states like Nagaland
have 0% women representation) .
Case Study of Bhakti Sharma
Bhakti Sharma , sarpanch of
Barkhedi Abdulla village was just 25 years old when she left her job with
attractive package and post-graduate degree in political science to become
Sarpanch of her village.
She gives up her two months’ salary to each
family where a girl child is born in the village
In 2015, she was chosen as one
of the 100 popular women in the country .
Problems in Reservation approach
One-size-fits-all policies designed in New Delhi backfires in states like Nagaland .It would perpetuate unequal status of women since their merit will always be questioned.
Right to choice of voters restricted .
Sarpanch Pati Syndrome : In many places the concept of sarpanch pati has emerged where the women is just the nominal sarpanch, whereas her husband is the real decision making authority.
Reservation do not lead to real empowerment as seats are contested by women from rich families, business and political families.
Watch this video to know more about the phenomenon of Sarpanch Pati
Points in favour of reservation
In states like M.P , Kerala , Chhattisgarh, Rajasthan etc. where the reservation has been extended to women in local municipal corporations and PRIs , positive impact on governance is visible where they are headed by women. Women representatives have contributed immensely in overcoming social taboos and constraints like removal of ghunghat , sitting at same height as men on chairs etc.
Though it begins at token equality that caused acute discomfort and even confrontation, women especially dalit has been able to push boundaries and create space in the decision making sphere across all sectors.
The acts made by women are more gender sensitive and are able to include female perspective in them.
This article deals with ‘Low Female Labour Force Participation.’ This is part of our series on ‘Society’ which is important pillar of GS-1 syllabus . For more articles , you can click here .
LFPR of women is continuously
decreasing . In 2017-18, LFPR among women was just 25%.
Only in Meghalaya , women LFPR
was above 50% .
Possible reasons for low Woman LFPR
Patriarchal Mindset : Patriarchal norms of Indian society and social constraints on freedom of women results in lower LFPR among women.
Nuclearisation of families : childcare and household work restricts woman participation in work.
Caste factor : in some upper castes, there is a stigma attached to women working outside the home .
Many sectors like Armed forces arent open for women .
Unpaid household work : Economists distinguish between production for self-consumption and production for the market. Only the latter is counted as ‘work’. Most of woman are working at home, but since it is unpaid, it is not counted in labour force participation.
Rising incompatibility of work : Due to structural change in Indian economy , skilled jobs in service and construction sector coming up but women don’t have necessary skills for these jobs .
Higher Education : As women are pursuing higher education, their entry in the job market is delayed (Feminization U-Hypothesis ( given below)).
An income effect of the husband’s higher earnings. Rise in the income of men has resulted in withdrawal of women from the labour market.
Violence against woman force woman to move out of labour force . Eg :
Violence against woman at workplace restricts their participation.
Mode of transportation is not safe for woman restricting their movement.
Problems like looking after young child, lack of crèches facility at workplace etc. force working mothers to quit job .
Women’s labour force
participation drops during the initial phase of industrialization .
But in long run,
Labour Force Participation will increase once a certain level of development is
Bangladesh Model – Promote
Apparel & Shoes Sector as these two
sectors are most women friendly .
Open more sectors for
woman : eg Defence Services etc.
that they can fit in post LPG Reforms economy .
Promoting woman entrepreneurship : Via Standup India and many
other schemes .
Maternity Benefits :
Government has already increased it to 26 weeks. Extend it to informal
sector as well.
Self Help Group (SHG) promotion like Kudumbshree to make
women especially in rural areas to be self-employed.
Japan Model (Womenomics) : It includes getting more women into positions of leadership.
Reshaping societal attitudes
and beliefs about women participation in the labour force.
Side Topic : Women in leadership roles in India
Women representation on
company boards in India is also very low at mere 13.8% .
But this number is gradually
increasing, which is a very positive sign. Many big corporates are headed
by women, example Pepsi by Indra Nooyi, Axis Bank by Shikha Sharma, ICICI
Bank by Chanda Kochhar (who just quit) etc.
In 2020 , Germany has
made mandatory quota for minimum number of women working in senior
management positions in the country’s listed firms.
Reasons for lack of women in leadership role
Glass ceiling Effect : It restricts the promotion of women to the top most positions. This glass ceiling exists due to the persistence of patriarchy in the society, and also due to the fact that the present leadership consists of men who promote the interests of men only
Leaky Pipeline Effect : Tendency for the proportion of women to decline as management grade rises .
Welfare Schemes , Laws and Institutions for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes
This article deals with ‘Welfare Schemes , Laws and Institutions for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.’ This is part of our series on ‘Governance’ which is important pillar of GS-2 syllabus . For more articles , you canclick here
Groups that experience a higher
risk ofpoverty and
social exclusion than
the general population. (European Commission)
Following groups can be identified as Vulnerable Groups in India
Differently Abled Persons
Old age people/ Senior Citizens
Orphans and Street Children
Reason why they are more vulnerable than other groups is because they lack
Economic capital in the form of material assets and income
Cultural capital such as educational qualifications and status
Social capital in the form of networks of contacts and social associations.
Scheduled Caste & Scheduled Tribe
1 . Constitutional Measures
1 . 1 Affirmative Action
State can make special provisions for the advancement of socially and educationally backward class of citizens including Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes
Reservation in public services
Claims of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes shall be taken into consideration in making appointments to the public services
1 . 2 Protective Measures
Abolition of Untouchability
Forced labour is prohibited
State is empowered to throw open Hindu religious institutions to all classes and sections of Hindus
1 .3 Political Measures
Reservation of seats in Lok Sabha in proportion of their population
Reservation in Indian law is quota based affirmative action .
We have already dealt with Reservation and it’s indepth analysis in another chapter. For reading it, Click here.
Act Analysis : SCs and STs (Prevention of the Atrocities) Act, 1989
MEANING OF THE ATROCITIES UNDER THE ACT
The term atrocity
has not been defined in law (but list of atrocities is given).
Act is applicable in
connection with Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes who are subjected to
violence and brutalities by any person
who is not a member of a Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.
TYPES OF ATROCITIES MENTIONED IN ACT
Atrocities under the act include (but are not limited to):
Beating, lashing and other forms of torture
Arson-the burning of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes communities and their homes
Violence against women
Denial of rights, especially land rights
Deny to give job or do business with person belonging to SC/ST
Police abuses against Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and custodial abuse
Person will be put behind the bars at the same instant when FIR is lodged against person
No provision of Anticipatory Bail. Bail can only be granted by High Court.
Imprisonment ranging for 6 months to life imprisonment
Regarding Government Servant
If any government Servant
indulge in such activity, there is provision of imprisonment of 6months to
Case can be registered against Government Servant only when he is found guilty
in Investigation .
Special Courts to deal with these cases
To fight the case, SC/ST is
provided with financial aid and
Working of Act
There are only 194
Special courts => only 1 out of 3 district has special court
Conviction rate is
2018 Judgement on SC/ST (Prevention of Atrocities) Act
Court’s Judgement- SC/ST
Atrocities Act 1989 is being misused (NCRB
data, conviction rate is 15% ) — and checks are needed to prevent such misuse . To check the misuse, Supreme Court placed two
No FIR should be filed under the SC/ST Atrocities Act till it is investigated by a DSP-level officer
No FIR should be registered against government servant under SC /ST Atrocities Act without the approval of the appointing authority.
Anticipatory bail can be given on the orders of Magistrate
August 2018 : Lok Sabha has passed amendment in the Act to nullify the Judgement.
Act Analysis : Forest Rights Act,2006
Schedule Tribes and Other Forest Dwellers(Recognition of Forest Rights) Act came into force in 2006.
It has been enacted to recognize and vest the forest rights and occupation of forest land in forest dwelling Scheduled Tribes and other
traditional forest dwellers,
who have been residing in such forests for generations, but whose rights
could not be recorded.
It guarantees following rights
Title Rights : the right in the land is granted to STs and the people who are residing there for 75 years but don’t have documents (maximum 4 hectare)
Right of use of resources. Eg : Minor Forest Produce (honey, herbs etc) , Common Property Resource etc
Relief and Developmental Rights : in case of any displacement of tribals , proper relief packages should be given
Forest Management Rights
Issues wrt Forest Right Act
Task of documenting the claims of communities is very tedious
Reluctance on the part of bureaucracy
Narrow interpretation of the law
Opposition from wildlife conservationists
Forest Rights Act is often in conflict with other laws e.g. Rights in protected areas like wildlife sanctuaries, national parks etc.
Political will should be there
Devolution of fund, functions
Awareness among the tribals
about their rights
Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTG)
1973 : Dhebar Commission created Primitive Tribal Groups (PTGs) as a separate category, who are less developed among the tribal groups.
2006 : Government of India renamed it to Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs).
At present, they are 75 in number.
PVTGs have some basic
Relatively physically isolated.
Absence of written language
Subsistence => hunting or gathering.
Zero or negative population growth.
Extremely low level of literacy.
Problems faced by them
Growth of PVTGs’ population is either stagnating or declining
Health status of PVTGs is in an
awful condition because of poverty,
illiteracy, lack of safe drinking water, bad sanitary conditions etc
Condition of education is also very poor, with an average
literacy rate of 10% to 44% in PVTGs.
Scheme: Scheme for Development of PVTGs
It identifies 75 PVTGs as the
most vulnerable among the Scheduled Tribes.
It gives state governments
flexibility in planning initiatives.
Long term Conservation cum
Development plan for five years for each PVTG to be established by States.
Scheme is funded entirely by
Schemes for upliftment of SCs and STs
1 . Umbrella Scheme for SCs
After rationalisation of Centrally Sponsored Schemes, all the Schemes for Scheduled Castes are taken under one Grand scheme that is Umbrella Scheme for Scheduled Castes which is Core of the Core Scheme and is 100% Centrally Sponsored
Some of the Schemes under this are
1. Pre-Matric Scholarships to SC Students 2. Post Matric Scholarship 3. Full financial support for pursuing studies beyond 12th class, in notified institutes of excellence like IITs, NITs, IIMs, reputed Medical/Law and other institutions. 4. National Fellowship: Financial assistance to SC students for pursuing research studies 5. National Overseas Scholarship: for pursuing higher studies of Master level and PhD programmes abroad. 6. Babu Jagjivan Ram Chhatrawas Yojna
1. Standup India 2. Venture Capital Fund for Scheduled Castes
2. Stand Up India
Every bank branch will provide
loan from Rs 10 lakh to Rs 1 crore
to one Dalit or Adivasi member and one woman each
For greenfield enterprises in the non-farm sector without collateral.
3. Eklavya Schools
Budget 2018 : announced establishment of Eklavya Schools.
To be established in all Tribal blocks with more than 50% ST population
Ekalavya schools will provide boarding and lodging facilities to tribal students.
These schools will have special facilities for preserving local art and culture besides providing training in sports and skill development.